|Detection of CTLA‑4 in Mouse Splenocytes by Flow Cytometry. Mouse splenocytes either untreated (A) or treated (B) with Conconavalin A for 72 hours were stained with Rat Anti-Mouse CTLA‑4 APC‑conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB434A) and Rat Anti-Mouse CD3 PE‑conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB4841P). Quadrant markers were set based on control antibody staining (Catalog # IC006A). View our protocol for Staining Membrane-associated Proteins.|
CTLA-4 (also known as CD152) and CD28, together with their ligands B7-1 and B7-2, constitute one of the dominant costimulatory pathways that regulate T and B cell responses. CTLA-4 and CD28 are structurally homologous molecules that are members of the immunoglobulin (Ig) gene superfamily. Both CTLA-4 and CD28 are composed of a single Ig V‑like extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain and an intracellular domain. CTLA-4 is expressed on the cell surface as either a disulfide-linked homodimer or a 24-26 kDa monomer. CTLA-4 was originally identified as a gene that was specifically expressed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. However, CTLA-4 transcripts have since been found in both Th1 and Th2, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cell clones. Whereas, CD28 expression is constitutive on the surfaces of 95% of CD4+ T cells and 50% of CD8+ T cells, and is down regulated upon T cell activation, CTLA-4 expression is upregulated rapidly following T cell activation and peaks approximately 24 hours following activation. Although both CTLA-4 and CD28 can bind to the same ligands, CTLA-4 binds to B7-1 and B7-2 with 20-100-fold higher affinity than CD28. The physiological role of CTLA-4 in T cell costimulation is contextually defined. Full-length CTLA-4, when induced and activated, sends an inhibitory signal to the expressing T cell. It also promotes the development of Tc17 cells. Tregs constitutively express CTLA-4, a phenotype that is essential to their function. Over amino acids (aa) 36-161, mouse CTLA-4 shares 94% and 67% aa sequence identity with rat and human CTLA-4, respectively.
The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.
The document you requested is not available online. Please enter the Catalog Number and Lot Number below to have a document emailed to you at the address provided