Mouse GITR/TNFRSF18 Biotinylated Antibody

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
BAF524
Product Details
Citations (3)
FAQs
Supplemental Products
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Mouse GITR/TNFRSF18 Biotinylated Antibody Summary

Species Reactivity
Mouse
Specificity
Detects mouse GITR/TNFRSF18 in ELISAs and Western blots. In sandwich immunoassays, less than 5% cross‑reactivity with recombinant human GITR is observed and less than 0.2% cross-reactivity with recombinant mouse (rm) 4-1BB, rmCD27, and rmLymphotoxin  beta R is observed.
Source
Polyclonal Goat IgG
Purification
Antigen Affinity-purified
Immunogen
Mouse myeloma cell line NS0-derived recombinant mouse GITR/TNFRSF18
Ser22-His153
Accession # Q8C4K3
Formulation
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with BSA as a carrier protein.
Label
Biotin

Applications

Recommended Concentration
Sample
Western Blot
0.1 µg/mL
Recombinant Mouse GITR/TNFRSF18 Fc Chimera (Catalog # 524-GR)

Mouse GITR/TNFRSF18 Sandwich Immunoassay

Recommended Concentration
Reagent
ELISA Detection (Matched Antibody Pair)
0.1-0.4 µg/mL 

Use in combination with:

Capture Reagent: Mouse GITR/TNFRSF18 Antibody (Catalog # MAB524)

Standard: Recombinant Mouse GITR/TNFRSF18 Fc Chimera Protein, CF (Catalog # 524-GR)

Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.

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Preparation and Storage

Reconstitution
Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
Reconstitution Buffer Available
Reconstitution Buffer 1 (PBS)
Catalog #
Availability
Size / Price
Qty
RB01
Shipping
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Background: GITR/TNFRSF18

GITR (glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor; also named AITR) is a member of the co‑stimulatory subset of the TNF receptor superfamily (1, 2). In mouse, the GITR gene is composed of five exons and encodes multiple length isoforms that arise from alternate splicing. The “standard”, or first reported isoform is a type I transmembrane protein, 228 amino acids (aa) in length that contains a 19 aa signal sequence, a 134 aa extracellular region, a 21 aa transmembrane segment, and a 54 aa cytoplasmic domain. The extracellular region contains four potential N-linked glycosylation sites plus three cysteine-rich pseudorepeats of about 40 aa each (3, 4). The extracellular regions of mouse and human are 57% aa identical. The cytoplasmic domain has a P-x-Q/E-E motif that is known to associate with TRAF2. This is a common characteristic of TNFRSF members with co‑stimulatory functions (4). Three other mouse GITR isoforms (B, C and D) have been reported (5). All share the same N-terminal 101 of 134 aa in the extracellular region (including pseudorepeats #1, #2 and one-half of #3). Isoform D diverges at aa #101 and continues for another 12 aa for a total length of 113 aa. This is a naturally-occurring soluble form. Isoforms B and C show splicing in their cytoplasmic tails that creates cytoplasmic domains of 118 aa and 46 aa, respectively. In both the B and C isoforms, the TRAF2 binding site is spliced out, with a p56lck binding site inserted in isoform B (4). Given its membership in the TNFRSF, it likely functions as a trimer on the cell surface (2). GITR is predominantly expressed on CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) and naïve CD8+ and CD4+ CD25- T cells, where its expression is up-regulated after antigen-driven activation. GITR activation provides co‑stimulatory signals for activated CD4+ CD25- T cells to enhance cell proliferation and augment cytokine production (IL-2, IL-4, IFN-gamma ). On CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells, GITR activation provides co‑stimulatory signals to induce proliferation, setting Treg cells in an active/hyperproliferactive state (6‑8).

References
  1. Kwon, B. et al. (2003) Exp. Mol. Med. 35:8. 
  2. Croft, M. (2003) Nat. Rev. Immunol. 3:609. 
  3. Nocentini, G. et al. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:6216.
  4. Nocentini, G. et al. (2000) DNA Cell Biol. 19:205. 
  5. Nocentini, G. et al. (2000) Cell Death Differ. 7:408.
  6. Tone, M. et al. (2003) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:15059.
  7. Ji, H. et al. (2004) J. Immunol. 172:5823.
  8. Stephens, G.L. et al. (2004) 173:5008.
Long Name
Glucocorticoid Induced TNF Receptor Family Related Gene
Entrez Gene IDs
8784 (Human); 21936 (Mouse); 500598 (Rat); 102146362 (Cynomolgus Monkey)
Alternate Names
Activation-inducible TNFR family receptor; AITR; AITRTNF receptor superfamily activation-inducible protein; CD357 antigen; CD357; GITR; GITR-D; GITRtumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 18; Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein; TNFRSF18; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 18

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Citations for Mouse GITR/TNFRSF18 Biotinylated Antibody

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

3 Citations: Showing 1 - 3
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  1. IL-2 is essential for TGF-beta to convert naive CD4+CD25- cells to CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and for expansion of these cells.
    Authors: Zheng SG, Wang J, Wang P, Gray JD, Horwitz DA
    J. Immunol., 2007;178(4):2018-27.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry
  2. Ig-reactive CD4+CD25+ T cells from tolerized (New Zealand Black x New Zealand White)F1 mice suppress in vitro production of antibodies to DNA.
    Authors: La Cava A, Ebling FM, Hahn BH
    J. Immunol., 2004;173(5):3542-8.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry
  3. Generation of anergic and regulatory T cells following prolonged exposure to a harmless antigen.
    Authors: Chen TC, Cobbold SP, Fairchild PJ, Waldmann H
    J. Immunol., 2004;172(10):5900-7.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry

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