Mouse/Rat GDF-15 Quantikine ELISA Kit

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Mouse/Rat GDF-15 ELISA Standard Curve
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Product Details
Citations (33)
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Mouse/Rat GDF-15 Quantikine ELISA Kit Summary

Assay Type
Solid Phase Sandwich ELISA
96-well strip plate
Assay Length
4.5 hours
Sample Type & Volume Required Per Well
Cell Culture Supernates (50 uL), Serum (50 uL), EDTA Plasma (50 uL), Heparin Plasma (50 uL), Urine (10 uL)
2.2 pg/mL
Assay Range
7.8 - 500 pg/mL (Cell Culture Supernates, Serum, EDTA Plasma, Heparin Plasma, Urine)
Natural mouse and rat GDF-15, recombinant mouse mature GDF-15, precursor GDF-15, and GDF-15/BMP-2 heterodimer. It does not detect monomeric recombinant mouse GDF-15.
< 0.5% cross-reactivity observed with available related molecules.< 50% cross-species reactivity observed with species tested.
No significant interference observed with available related molecules.

Product Summary

The Quantikine Mouse/Rat GDF-15 Immunoassay is a 4.5 hour solid-phase ELISA designed to measure mouse and rat GDF-15 in cell culture supernates, serum, plasma, and urine. It contains E. coli-expressed recombinant mouse GDF-15 and antibodies raised against the recombinant factor. This immunoassay has been shown to accurately quantitate the recombinant factor. Results obtained using natural mouse or rat GDF-15 showed linear curves that were parallel to the standard curves obtained using the Quantikine kit standards. These results indicate that this kit can be used to determine relative mass values for naturally occurring mouse and rat GDF-15.


Intra-Assay Precision (Precision within an assay) Three samples of known concentration were tested twenty times on one plate to assess intra-assay precision
Inter-Assay Precision (Precision between assays) Three samples of known concentration were tested in twenty separate assays to assess inter-assay precision. Assays were performed by at least three technicians using two lots of components

Cell Culture Supernates, Serum, EDTA Plasma, Heparin Plasma, Urine

Intra-Assay Precision Inter-Assay Precision
Sample 1 2 3 1 2 3
n 20 20 20 20 20 20
Mean (pg/mL) 25.6 60 190 26.7 63.1 196
Standard Deviation 0.69 1.42 5.49 1.62 2.84 10.7
CV% 2.7 2.4 2.9 6.1 4.5 5.5


The recovery of GDF-15 spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated.

Sample Type Average % Recovery Range %
Mouse Cell Culture Media (n=4) 102 91-110
Mouse EDTA Plasma (n=4) 95 81-109
Mouse Heparin Plasma (n=4) 95 87-104
Mouse Serum (n=4) 91 82-101
Mouse Urine (n=4) 97 88-106


To assess the linearity of the assay, samples containing and/or spiked with high concentrations of GDF-15 in each matrix were diluted with Calibrator Diluent and assayed.
Mouse/Rat GDF-15 ELISA Linearity

Scientific Data

Mouse/Rat GDF-15 ELISA Standard Curve

Product Datasheets

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Preparation and Storage

The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Store the unopened product at 2 - 8 °C. Do not use past expiration date.

Background: GDF-15

Growth/differentiation factors (GDF-1 to GDF-15) are members of the BMP family of TGF-beta superfamily proteins. They are produced as inactive preproproteins which are then cleaved and assembled into active secreted homodimers. GDF dimers are disulfide-linked with the exception of GDF-3 and -9. GDF proteins are important during embryonic development, particularly in the skeletal, nervous, and muscular systems.

Long Name:
Growth Differentiation Factor 15
Entrez Gene IDs:
9518 (Human); 23886 (Mouse); 29455 (Rat)
Alternate Names:
GDF15; GDF-15; growth differentiation factor 15; growth/differentiation factor 15; Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1; MIC-1; MIC-1NSAID-activated gene 1 protein; MIC1Prostate differentiation factor; NAG-1; NAG-1NSAID-regulated gene 1 protein; NSAID (nonsteroidal inflammatory drug)-activated protein 1; PDF; PDFGDF-15; PLAB; PLABNRG-1; Placental bone morphogenetic protein; Placental TGF-beta; PTGF-beta; PTGFBPTGF-beta
⚠ WARNING: This product can expose you to chemicals including N,N-Dimethylforamide, which is known to the State of California to cause cancer. For more information, go to

Assay Procedure

Refer to the product for complete assay procedure.

Bring all reagents and samples to room temperature before use. It is recommended that all samples, standards, and controls be assayed in duplicate.
  1.   Prepare all reagents, standard dilutions, and samples as directed in the product insert.
  2.   Remove excess microplate strips from the plate frame, return them to the foil pouch containing the desiccant pack, and reseal.

  3. 50 µL Assay Diluent
  4.   Add 50 µL of Assay Diluent to each well.

  5. 50 µL Standard, Control, or Sample
  6.   Add 50 µL of Standard, Control, or sample to each well. Cover with a plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 2 hours on a horizontal orbital microplate shaker.
  7.   Aspirate each well and wash, repeating the process 3 times for a total of 4 washes.

  8. 100 µL Conjugate
  9.   Add 100 µL of Conjugate to each well. Cover with a new plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 2 hours on the shaker.
  10.   Aspirate and wash 4 times.

  11. 100 µL Substrate Solution
  12.   Add 100 µL Substrate Solution to each well. Incubate at room temperature for 30 minutes on the benchtop. PROTECT FROM LIGHT.

  13. 100 µL Stop Solution
  14.   Add 100 µL of Stop Solution to each well. Read at 450 nm within 30 minutes. Set wavelength correction to 540 nm or 570 nm.

Citations for Mouse/Rat GDF-15 Quantikine ELISA Kit

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

33 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Dietary medium-chain fatty acids reduce food intake via the GDF15-GFRAL axis in mice
    Authors: Kanta, JM;Deisen, L;Johann, K;Holm, S;Lundsgaard, A;Lund, J;Jähnert, M;Schürmann, A;Clemmensen, C;Kiens, B;Fritzen, AM;Kleinert, M;
    Molecular metabolism
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Plasma
  2. Hyperphagia of female UCP1-deficient mice blunts anti-obesity effects of FGF21
    Authors: Klein Hazebroek, M;Laterveer, R;Kutschke, M;Ramšak Mar?eta, V;Barthem, CS;Keipert, S;
    Scientific reports
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Serum
  3. Non-Nutritive Sweetened Beverages Impair Therapeutic Benefits of Metformin in Prediabetic Diet-Induced Obese Mice
    Authors: Singh, A;Rourk, K;Bernier, A;de Lartigue, G;
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Plasma
  4. A coordinated multiorgan metabolic response contributes to human mitochondrial myopathy
    Authors: Southwell, N;Primiano, G;Nadkarni, V;Attarwala, N;Beattie, E;Miller, D;Alam, S;Liparulo, I;Shurubor, YI;Valentino, ML;Carelli, V;Servidei, S;Gross, SS;Manfredi, G;Chen, Q;D'Aurelio, M;
    EMBO molecular medicine
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Plasma
  5. GDF15 neutralization restores muscle function and physical performance in a mouse model of cancer cachexia
    Authors: JY Kim-Muller, L Song, B LaCarubba, E Pashos, X Li, A Rinaldi, S Joaquim, JC Stansfield, J Zhang, A Robertson, J Pang, A Opsahl, M Boucher, D Breen, K Hales, A Sheikh, Z Wu, BB Zhang
    Cell Reports, 2023-01-10;42(1):111947.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Plasma
  6. Adipocytes control food intake and weight regain via Vacuolar-type H+ ATPase
    Authors: RC Zapata, M Carretero, FCG Reis, BS Chaudry, J Ofrecio, D Zhang, R Sasik, T Ciaraldi, M Petraschec, O Osborn
    Nature Communications, 2022-08-30;13(1):5092.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Plasma
  7. Tubule-mitophagic secretion of SerpinG1 reprograms macrophages to instruct anti-septic acute kidney injury efficacy of high-dose ascorbate mediated by NRF2 transactivation
    Authors: Y Ni, GH Wu, JJ Cai, R Zhang, Y Zheng, JQ Liu, XH Yang, X Yang, Y Shen, JM Lai, XM Ye, SJ Mo
    International journal of biological sciences, 2022-08-08;18(13):5168-5184.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  8. Blocking ActRIIB and restoring appetite reverses cachexia and improves survival in mice with lung cancer
    Authors: AL Queiroz, E Dantas, S Ramsamooj, A Murthy, M Ahmed, ERM Zunica, RJ Liang, J Murphy, CD Holman, CJ Bare, G Ghahramani, Z Wu, DE Cohen, JP Kirwan, LC Cantley, CL Axelrod, MD Goncalves
    Nature Communications, 2022-08-08;13(1):4633.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  9. Targeting SLC7A11 improves efferocytosis by dendritic cells and wound healing in diabetes
    Authors: S Maschalidi, P Mehrotra, BN Keçeli, HKL De Cleene, K Lecomte, R Van der Cr, P Janssen, J Pinney, G van Loo, D Elewaut, A Massie, E Hoste, KS Ravichandr
    Nature, 2022-05-25;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  10. Reduced expression of mitochondrial complex I subunit Ndufs2 does not impact healthspan in mice
    Authors: GS McElroy, RP Chakrabart, KB D'Alessand, K Vasan, J Tan, JS Stoolman, SE Weinberg, EM Steinert, PA Reyfman, BD Singer, WC Ladiges, L Gao, J Lopéz-Barn, GRS Budinger, NS Chandel
    Scientific Reports, 2022-03-25;12(1):5196.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Serum
  11. eNAMPT actions through nucleus accumbens NAD+/SIRT1 link increased adiposity with sociability deficits programmed by peripuberty stress
    Authors: L Morató, S Astori, I Zalachoras, J Rodrigues, S Ghosal, W Huang, I Guillot de, J Grosse, O Zanoletti, L Cao, J Auwerx, C Sandi
    Science Advances, 2022-03-02;8(9):eabj9109.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Plasma
  12. Aging Aggravates Cachexia in Tumor-Bearing Mice
    Authors: J Geppert, AA Walth, R Terrón Exp, D Kaltenecke, P Morigny, J Machado, M Becker, E Simoes, JDCC Lima, C Daniel, M Berriel Di, S Herzig, M Seelaender, M Rohm
    Cancers, 2021-12-24;14(1):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Plasma
  13. The enzymatic activity of inositol hexakisphosphate kinase controls circulating phosphate in mammals
    Authors: Y Moritoh, SI Abe, H Akiyama, A Kobayashi, R Koyama, R Hara, S Kasai, M Watanabe
    Nature Communications, 2021-08-11;12(1):4847.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Plasma
  14. Inhibition of mitochondrial function by metformin increases glucose uptake, glycolysis and GDF-15 release from intestinal cells
    Authors: M Yang, T Darwish, P Larraufie, D Rimmington, I Cimino, DA Goldspink, B Jenkins, A Koulman, CA Brighton, M Ma, BYH Lam, AP Coll, S O'Rahilly, F Reimann, FM Gribble
    Scientific Reports, 2021-01-28;11(1):2529.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  15. Discordant hepatic fatty acid oxidation and triglyceride hydrolysis leads to liver disease
    Authors: ES Selen, J Choi, MJ Wolfgang
    JCI Insight, 2021-01-25;6(2):.
    Species: Transgenic Mouse
    Sample Types: Serum
  16. Loss of Muscle Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 2 Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance despite Long-Chain Acylcarnitine Accumulation
    Authors: AS Pereyra, A Rajan, CR Ferreira, JM Ellis
    Cell Rep, 2020-11-10;33(6):108374.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Plasma
  17. Growth differentiation factor-15 as a biomarker for sarcopenia in aging humans and mice
    Authors: H Kim, KM Kim, MJ Kang, S Lim
    Exp Gerontol, 2020-10-16;142(0):111115.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Serum
  18. Cilostazol ameliorates diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting highglucose- induced apoptosis
    Authors: CW Chian, YS Lee, YJ Lee, YH Chen, CP Wang, WC Lee, HJ Lee
    Korean J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 2020-09-01;24(5):403-412.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Tissue Homogenates
  19. The evolving systemic biomarker milieu in obese ZSF1 rat model of human cardiometabolic syndrome: Characterization of the model and cardioprotective effect of GDF15
    Authors: M Stolina, X Luo, D Dwyer, CY Han, R Chen, Y Zhang, Y Xiong, Y Chen, J Yin, A Shkumatov, B Ason, C Hale, MM Véniant
    PLoS ONE, 2020-08-17;15(8):e0231234.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Serum
  20. Both male and female obese ZSF1 rats develop cardiac dysfunction in obesity-induced heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
    Authors: ITN Nguyen, MM Brandt, J van de Wou, RWA van Drie, M Wesseling, MJ Cramer, SCA de Jager, D Merkus, DJ Duncker, C Cheng, JA Joles, MC Verhaar
    PLoS ONE, 2020-05-06;15(5):e0232399.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Plasma
  21. Exogenous GDF11, but not GDF8, reduces body weight and improves glucose homeostasis in mice
    Authors: RG Walker, O Barrandon, T Poggioli, S Dagdeviren, SH Carroll, MJ Mills, KR Mendello, Y Gomez, FS Loffredo, JR Pancoast, C Macias-Tre, C Marts, KB LeClair, HL Noh, T Kim, AS Banks, JK Kim, DE Cohen, AJ Wagers, DA Melton, RT Lee
    Sci Rep, 2020-03-12;10(1):4561.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Plasma
  22. Role of GDF15 in active lifestyle induced metabolic adaptations and acute exercise response in mice
    Authors: CI Gil, M Ost, J Kasch, S Schumann, S Heider, S Klaus
    Sci Rep, 2019-12-27;9(1):20120.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Plasma
  23. Exploring the In�Vivo Role of the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter in Brown Fat Bioenergetics
    Authors: D Flicker, Y Sancak, E Mick, O Goldberger, VK Mootha
    Cell Rep, 2019-04-30;27(5):1364-1375.e5.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Plasma
  24. GDF15 deficiency promotes high fat diet-induced obesity in mice
    Authors: T Tran, J Yang, J Gardner, Y Xiong
    PLoS ONE, 2018-08-02;13(8):e0201584.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Serum
  25. Supraphysiologic Administration of GDF11 Induces Cachexia in Part by Upregulating GDF15
    Authors: JE Jones, SM Cadena, C Gong, X Wang, Z Chen, SX Wang, C Vickers, H Chen, E Lach-Trifi, JR Hadcock, DJ Glass
    Cell Rep, 2018-02-06;22(6):1522-1530.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Plasma
  26. Partial involvement of Nrf2 in skeletal muscle mitohormesis as an adaptive response to mitochondrial uncoupling
    Authors: V Coleman, P Sa-Nguanmo, J Koenig, TJ Schulz, T Grune, S Klaus, AP Kipp, M Ost
    Sci Rep, 2018-02-05;8(1):2446.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Plasma
  27. Fasting exacerbates hepatic growth differentiation factor 15 to promote fatty acid ?-oxidation and ketogenesis via activating XBP1 signaling in liver
    Authors: M Zhang, W Sun, J Qian, Y Tang
    Redox Biol, 2018-02-01;16(0):87-96.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Tissue Homogenates
  28. Induction of Growth Differentiation Factor 15 in Skeletal Muscle of Old Taurine Transporter Knockout Mouse
    Authors: T Ito, Y Nakanishi, N Yamaji, S Murakami, SW Schaffer
    Biol. Pharm. Bull., 2018-01-01;41(3):435-439.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Serum
  29. Loss of Hepatic Mitochondrial Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation Confers Resistance to Diet-Induced Obesity and Glucose Intolerance
    Authors: J Lee, J Choi, ES Selen Alpe, L Zhao, T Hartung, S Scafidi, RC Riddle, MJ Wolfgang
    Cell Rep, 2017-07-18;20(3):655-667.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Serum
  30. Mitochonic Acid 5 (MA-5) Facilitates ATP Synthase Oligomerization and Cell Survival in Various Mitochondrial Diseases
    Authors: T Matsuhashi, T Sato, SI Kanno, T Suzuki, A Matsuo, Y Oba, M Kikusato, E Ogasawara, T Kudo, K Suzuki, O Ohara, H Shimbo, F Nanto, H Yamaguchi, D Saigusa, Y Mukaiyama, A Watabe, K Kikuchi, H Shima, E Mishima, Y Akiyama, Y Oikawa, HO Hsin-Jung, Y Akiyama, C Suzuki, M Uematsu, M Ogata, N Kumagai, M Toyomizu, A Hozawa, N Mano, Y Owada, S Aiba, T Yanagisawa, Y Tomioka, S Kure, S Ito, K Nakada, KI Hayashi, H Osaka, T Abe
    EBioMedicine, 2017-05-13;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Serum
  31. Oral Treatment with the Ghrelin Receptor Agonist HM01 Attenuates Cachexia in Mice Bearing Colon-26 (C26) Tumors
    Authors: FO Villars, C Pietra, C Giuliano, TA Lutz, T Riediger
    Int J Mol Sci, 2017-05-05;18(5):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Plasma
  32. GDF15 is elevated in mice following retinal ganglion cell death and in glaucoma patients
    Authors: N Ban, CJ Siegfried, JB Lin, YB Shui, J Sein, W Pita-Thoma, A Sene, A Santeford, M Gordon, R Lamb, Z Dong, SC Kelly, V Cavalli, J Yoshino, RS Apte
    JCI Insight, 2017-05-04;2(9):.
    Species: Mouse, Rat
    Sample Types: Aqueous Humor
  33. Ghrelin protects against renal damages induced by angiotensin-II via an antioxidative stress mechanism in mice.
    Authors: Fujimura K, Wakino S, Minakuchi H, Hasegawa K, Hosoya K, Komatsu M, Kaneko Y, Shinozuka K, Washida N, Kanda T, Tokuyama H, Hayashi K, Itoh H
    PLoS ONE, 2014-04-18;9(4):e94373.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Urine


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Mouse/Rat GDF-15 Quantikine ELISA Kit
By Anonymous on 07/26/2020
Sample Tested: EDTA Plasma,Mouse plasma

Mouse/Rat GDF-15 Quantikine ELISA Kit
By Anonymous on 03/14/2019
Sample Tested: Serum and Plasma

Mouse/Rat GDF-15 Quantikine ELISA Kit
By Anonymous on 02/02/2017
Sample Tested: cell media