Measured by its ability to neutralize TGF‑ beta 2 inhibition of IL-4-dependent proliferation in the HT‑2 mouse T cell line. Tsang, M. et al. (1995) Cytokine 7:389. The Neutralization Dose (ND50) is typically 0.15-0.75 ug/mL in the presence of 5 ng/mL Recombinant Mouse TGF‑ beta 2 and 7.5 ng/mL Recombinant Mouse IL-4.
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application.
are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
TGF‑ beta 2 Inhibition of IL‑4-dependent Cell Proliferation and Neutralization by Mouse TGF‑ beta 2 Antibody.
Recombinant Mouse TGF‑ beta 2 (Catalog # 7346‑B2) inhibits Recombinant Mouse IL-4 (Catalog # 404-ML) induced proliferation in the HT‑2 mouse T cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Inhibition of Recombinant Mouse IL-4 (7.5 ng/mL) activity elicited by Recombinant Mouse TGF-beta 2 (5 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Rat Anti-Mouse TGF‑ beta 2 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB7346). The ND50 is typically 0.15-0.75 ug/mL.
Preparation and Storage
Sterile PBS to a final concentration of 0.5 mg/mL.
Reconstitution Buffer Available
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: TGF-beta 2
(transforming growth factor beta 2) is one of three closely related mammalian
members of the large TGF-beta superfamily that share a characteristic cysteine
knot structure. TGF-beta 1, -2 and -3 are highly pleiotropic
cytokines proposed to act as cellular switches that regulate processes
such as immune function, proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Each TGF-beta isoform has some non-redundant functions; for
TGF-beta 2, mice with targeted deletion show defects in development of cardiac,
lung, craniofacial, limb, eye, ear and urogenital systems. Mouse TGF-beta 2
cDNA encodes a 414 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 19 aa signal
peptide and a 395 aa proprotein. A furin-like convertase processes the
proprotein to generate an N-terminal 283 aa latency-associated peptide (LAP)
and a C-terminal 112 aa mature TGF- beta 2. Disulfide-linked homodimers
of LAP and TGF-beta 2 remain non-covalently associated after secretion, forming the
small latent TGF-beta 2 complex. Covalent linkage of LAP to one of three
latent TGF-beta binding proteins (LTBPs) creates a large latent complex that may
interact with the extracellular matrix. TGF-beta is activated from
latency by pathways that include actions of the protease plasmin, matrix
metalloproteases, thrombospondin 1 and a subset of integrins. Mature mouse
TGF-beta 2 shares 100% aa identity with rat TGF-beta 2, and 97% aa identity with
human, porcine, canine, equine and bovine TGF-beta 2. It demonstrates
cross-species activity. In most cells, TGF-beta 2 signaling begins with binding
to a complex of the accessory receptor betaglycan (also known as
TGF-beta RIII) and a type II ser/thr kinase receptor termed TGF-beta RII,
which then phosphorylates and activates another ser/thr kinase receptor,
TGF-beta RI (also called activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) -5), or
alternatively, ALK-1. The whole complex phosphorylates and activates Smad
proteins that regulate transcription. In bone -related cells,
however, TGF-beta 2 also signals through TGF-beta RIIB (a splice variant of TGF-beta
RII), independently of TGF-beta RIII. Use of other signaling pathways
that are Smad-independent allows for disparate actions observed in response to
TGF-beta in different contexts.
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products.
The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed,
but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
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