Mouse VEGF-D Antibody

(4 citations)   
  • Species Reactivity
    Mouse
  • Specificity
    Detects mouse VEGF-D in direct ELISAs and Western blots. In direct ELISAs, less than 40% cross-reactivity with recombinant human (rh) VEGF-D is observed, and less than 1% cross-reactivity with recombinant mouse (rm) VEGF115, rmVEGF120, rhVEGF, rhVEGF-B, and rmVEGF165 is observed.
  • Source
    Polyclonal Goat IgG
  • Purification
    Antigen Affinity-purified
  • Immunogen
    E. coli-derived recombinant mouse VEGF-D
    Phe98-Ser206
    Accession # P97946
  • Formulation
    Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
  • Label
    Unconjugated
Applications
  •  
    Recommended
    Concentration
    Sample
  • Western Blot
    0.1 µg/mL
    Recombinant Mouse VEGF-D (Catalog # 469-VD)
  • Immunohistochemistry
    5-15 µg/mL
    See below
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Data Examples
Immunohistochemistry
VEGF-D in Mouse Embryo. VEGF-D was detected in immersion fixed frozen sections of mouse embryo (13 d.p.c.) using Goat Anti-Mouse VEGF‑D Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF469) at 15 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained using the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific staining was localized to seminiferous tubules in testis. View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Frozen Tissue Sections.
Preparation and Storage
  • Reconstitution
    Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
  • Shipping
    The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
  • Stability & Storage
    Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
    • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
    • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: VEGF-D

Vascular endothelia growth factor D (VEGF-D), also known as c-fos-induced growth factor (FIGF), is a secreted glycoprotein of the VEGF/PDGF family. VEGFs regulate angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis during development and tumor growth, and are characterized by eight conserved cysteine residues that form a cysteine-knot structure (1‑3). VEGF-C and VEGF-D, which share 23% amino acid (aa) sequence identity, are uniquely expressed as preproproteins that contain long N- and C-terminal propeptide extensions around the VEGF homology domain (VHD) (1, 2). Proteolytic processing of either 358 aa or 326 aa splice forms of mouse VEGF-D preproprotein creates a secreted proprotein. Further processing by extracellular serine proteases, such as plasmin or furin-like proprotein convertases, forms mature VEGF-D consisting of non-covalently linked 42 kDa homodimers of the 117 aa VHD (4‑7). Mature mouse VEGF-D shares 94%, 99%, 93%, 91% and 89% aa identity with the VHD of human, rat, equine, canine and bovine VEGF-D, respectively. It is expressed in adult lung, heart, muscle, and small intestine, and is most abundantly expressed in fetal lungs and skin (1-4). Mouse and human VEGF-D are ligands for VEGF receptor 3 (VEGF-R3, also called Flt-4) that are active across species and show enhanced affinity when processed (8). Unlike human VEGF‑D, which is also a ligand for VEGF-R2 (also called Flk-1 or KDR), mouse VEGF-D does not bind to VEGF-R2 (8). VEGF-R3 is strongly expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells and is essential for regulation of the growth and differentiation of lymphatic endothelium (1, 2). While VEGF-C is the critical ligand for VEGF-R3 during embryonic lymphatic development, VEGF-D is most active in neonatal lymphatic maturation and bone growth (9‑11). Both promote tumor lymphangiogenesis (12). Consonant with their activity on VEGF receptors, binding of VEGF-C and VEGF-D to neuropilins contributes to VEGF-R3 signaling in lymphangiogenesis, while binding to integrin alpha 9 beta 1 mediates endothelial cell adhesion and migration (13, 14).

  • References:
    1. Roy, H. et al. (2006) FEBS Lett. 580:2879.
    2. Otrock, Z.H. et al. (2007) Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 38:258.
    3. Orlandini, M. et al. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:11675.
    4. Stacker, S.A. et al. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274:32127.
    5. McColl, B.K. et al. (2003) J. Exp. Med. 198:863.
    6. McColl, B.K. et al. (2007) FASEB J. 21:1088.
    7. Baldwin, M.E. et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276:44307.
    8. Baldwin, M.E. et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276:19166.
    9. Baldwin, M.E. et al. (2005) Mol. Cell. Biol. 25:2441.
    10. Karpanen, T. et al. (2006) Am. J. Pathol. 169:708.
    11. Orlandini, M. et al. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281:17961.
    12. Stacker, S.A. et al. (2001) Nature Med. 7:186.
    13. Karpanen, T. et al. (2006) FASEB J. 20:1462.
    14. Vlahakis, N.E. et al. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280:4544.
  • Long Name:
    Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor D/cFos-induced Growth Factor
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    2277 (Human); 14205 (Mouse)
  • Alternate Names:
    c-fos induced growth factor (vascular endothelial growth factor D); FIGF; vascular endothelial growth factor D; VEGFD; VEGF-D; VEGF-DVEGFDc-Fos-induced growth factor
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

4 Citations: Showing 1 - 4
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. Dilated thin-walled blood and lymphatic vessels in human endometrium: a potential role for VEGF-D in progestin-induced break-through bleeding.
    Authors: Donoghue JF, McGavigan CJ, Lederman FL
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(2):e30916.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: IHC Paraffin-embedded
  2. Liposomal honokiol inhibits VEGF-D-induced lymphangiogenesis and metastasis in xenograft tumor model.
    Authors: Wen J, Fu AF, Chen LJ, Xie XJ, Yang GL, Chen XC, Wang YS, Li J, Chen P, Tang MH, Shao XM, Lu Y, Zhao X, Wei YQ
    Int. J. Cancer, 2009;124(11):2709-18.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    Application: WB
  3. Effects of acute exercise, exercise training, and diabetes on the expression of lymphangiogenic growth factors and lymphatic vessels in skeletal muscle.
    Authors: Kivela R, Silvennoinen M, Lehti M, Kainulainen H, Vihko V
    Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol., 2007;293(4):H2573-9.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: IHC Fresh
  4. VEGF-C is a trophic factor for neural progenitors in the vertebrate embryonic brain.
    Authors: Le Bras B, Barallobre MJ, Homman-Ludiye J, Ny A, Wyns S, Tammela T, Haiko P, Karkkainen MJ, Yuan L, Muriel MP, Chatzopoulou E, Breant C, Zalc B, Carmeliet P, Alitalo K, Eichmann A, Thomas JL
    Nat. Neurosci., 2006;9(3):340-8.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: IHC Frozen
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