Recombinant Human MD-2 Protein

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Citations (18)
Reviews (1)

Recombinant Human MD-2 Protein Summary

Product Specifications

>90%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Measured by its binding ability in a functional ELISA. When recombinant human TLR-4 is Immobilized at 2 µg/mL (100 µL/well), the concentration of rhMD-2 that produces 50% optimal binding response is found to be approximately 0.03-0.15 µg/mL.
E. coli-derived human MD2 protein
Met Human MD-2
(Glu17 - Asn160)
Accession # BAA78717
N-terminus C-terminus
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Predicted Molecular Mass
19.2 kDa (monomer)

Product Datasheets

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1787-MD (with carrier)

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1787-MD/CF (carrier free)

Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.


Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA with BSA as a carrier protein.

Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.

Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.


Formulation Supplied as a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA.
Shipping The product is shipped with dry ice or equivalent. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after opening.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after opening.
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Background: MD2

MD-2, also known as lymphocyte antigen 96 and ESOP-1, is a secreted glycoprotein that shares conserved cysteine residues and significant sequence similarity (23%) with MD-1. The gene of human MD-2 encodes a 160 amino acid residue (aa) precursor protein with a 16 aa signal peptide and a 144 aa mature protein, which contains 2 N‑glycosylation sites (1). Recombinant secreted MD‑2 has been found to exist as disulfide-linked dimers and oligomers (2).

Both MD-1 and MD-2 are accessory molecules that associate with the extracellular leucine-rich repeats (LRR) of Toll-like receptor (TLR) family members, which are type I transmembrane receptors that regulate innate immune responses to microbial pathogens (3, 4). MD-1 binds to RP105 on B cells and macrophages to form the signaling receptor complex for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a constituent of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Similarly, MD-2 interacts with TLR-4 to form the heteromeric receptor that confers LPS responsiveness. MD-2 also associates with TLR-2, albeit with less avidity, to confer responsiveness to cell wall components from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. MD-1 and MD-2 are also required for the correct targeting of the TLRs to the cell surface. Although MD-2 glycosylation is not crucial for its surface expression and interaction with TLR-4, it is required for LPS binding and signaling (5).

  1. Shimazu, R. et al. (1999) J. Exp. Med. 189:1777.
  2. Visintin, A. et al. (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:12156.
  3. Nagai, Y. et al. (2002) Nature Immunology 3:667.
  4. Akashi, S. et al. (2003) J. Exp. Med. 198:1035.
  5. Correia, J. and R. Ulevitch (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277:1845.
Long Name
Myeloid Differentiation Protein 2/Lymphocyte Antigen 96
Entrez Gene IDs
23643 (Human); 17087 (Mouse); 102118398 (Cynomolgus Monkey)
Alternate Names
ESOP1; ESOP-1; LY96; ly-96; lymphocyte antigen 96; MD2; MD-2; myeloid differentiation protein-2; Protein MD-2

Citations for Recombinant Human MD-2 Protein

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

18 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Protective Effects of Rhamnetin in Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii-Induced Sepsis Model and the Underlying Mechanism
    Authors: Kim, M;Chaudhary, SC;Kim, B;Kim, Y;
    International journal of molecular sciences
    Species: N/A
    Sample Types: Recombinant Protein
    Applications: Bioassay
  2. The antimicrobial peptide LK2(6)A(L) exhibits anti-inflammatory activity by binding to the myeloid differentiation 2 domain and protects against LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice
    Authors: J Zhang, Y Sun, C Sun, D Shang
    Bioorganic chemistry, 2023-01-18;132(0):106376.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Types: Peptide
    Applications: SPR
  3. A Xanthohumol-Rich Hop Extract Diminishes Endotoxin-Induced Activation of TLR4 Signaling in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: A Study in Healthy Women
    Authors: F Jung, R Staltner, A Baumann, K Burger, E Halilbasic, C Hellerbran, I Bergheim
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2022-10-21;23(20):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
    Applications: Bioassay
  4. Exercise-Induced Irisin Decreases Inflammation and Improves NAFLD by Competitive Binding with MD2
    Authors: W Zhu, NE Sahar, HMA Javaid, ES Pak, G Liang, Y Wang, H Ha, JY Huh
    Cells, 2021-11-25;10(12):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  5. Flavokawain B alleviates LPS-induced acute lung injury via targeting myeloid differentiation factor 2
    Authors: W Luo, LB Yang, CC Qian, B Ma, GM Manjengwa, XM Miao, J Wang, CH Hu, B Jin, LX Zhang, C Zheng, G Liang, Y Wang
    Acta pharmacologica Sinica, 2021-11-04;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Recombinant Proteins
    Applications: SPR
  6. The soluble cytoplasmic tail of CD45 regulates T cell activation via TLR4 signaling
    Authors: A Puck, S Künig, M Modak, L May, P Fritz, C Battin, K Radakovics, P Steinberge, BM Reipert, BA Crowe, J Stöckl
    European Journal of Immunology, 2021-10-20;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  7. Astilbin prevents osteoarthritis development through the TLR4/MD-2 pathway
    Authors: S Sun, Z Yan, X Shui, W Qi, Y Chen, X Xu, Y Hu, W Guo, P Shang
    J Cell Mol Med, 2020-10-16;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Peptide
    Applications: ELISA Capture
  8. MD2 activation by direct AGE interaction drives inflammatory diabetic cardiomyopathy
    Authors: Y Wang, W Luo, J Han, ZA Khan, Q Fang, Y Jin, X Chen, Y Zhang, M Wang, J Qian, W Huang, H Lum, G Wu, G Liang
    Nat Commun, 2020-05-01;11(1):2148.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Protein
    Applications: Bioassay
  9. Macrophage-derived myeloid differentiation protein 2 plays an essential role in ox-LDL-induced inflammation and atherosclerosis
    Authors: T Chen, W Huang, J Qian, W Luo, P Shan, Y Cai, K Lin, G Wu, G Liang
    EBioMedicine, 2020-03-06;53(0):102706.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Recombinant Protein
    Applications: Bioassay
  10. Procyanidin B3 alleviates intervertebral disc degeneration via interaction with the TLR4/MD-2 complex
    Authors: P Shang, Q Tang, Z Hu, S Huang, Y Hu, J Zhu, H Liu
    J. Cell. Mol. Med., 2020-02-18;0(0):.
    Applications: ELISA (Standard)
  11. Inorganic polyphosphate potentiates lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage inflammatory response
    Authors: T Ito, S Yamamoto, K Yamaguchi, M Sato, Y Kaneko, S Goto, Y Goto, I Narita
    J. Biol. Chem., 2020-02-10;0(0):.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Types: Complex Sample Type
    Applications: Bioassay
  12. Folic acid derived-P5779 mimetics regulate DAMP-mediated inflammation through disruption of HMGB1:TLR4:MD-2 axes
    Authors: S Sun, M He, Y Wang, H Yang, Y Al-Abed
    PLoS ONE, 2018-02-15;13(2):e0193028.
    Applications: Bioassay
  13. Estradiol alters the immune-responsiveness of cervical epithelial cells stimulated with ligands of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4
    Authors: B S Lashkari, DO Anumba
    PLoS ONE, 2017-03-15;12(3):e0173646.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  14. IRAK4 as a molecular target in the amelioration of innate immunity-related endotoxic shock and acute liver injury by chlorogenic acid.
    Authors: Park, Sun Hong, Baek, Seung-Il, Yun, Jieun, Lee, Seungmin, Yoon, Da Young, Jung, Jae-Kyun, Jung, Sang-Hun, Hwang, Bang Yeo, Hong, Jin Tae, Han, Sang-Bae, Kim, Youngsoo
    J Immunol, 2014-12-29;194(3):1122-30.
    Applications: Bioassay
  15. PTX3 binds MD-2 and promotes TRIF-dependent immune protection in aspergillosis.
    Authors: Bozza S, Campo S, Arseni B, Inforzato A, Ragnar L, Bottazzi B, Mantovani A, Moretti S, Oikonomous V, De Santis R, Carvalho A, Salvatori G, Romani L
    J Immunol, 2014-07-21;193(5):2340-8.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: In Vivo, Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay, In Vivo
  16. Zhankuic acid A isolated from Taiwanofungus camphoratus is a novel selective TLR4/MD-2 antagonist with anti-inflammatory properties.
    Authors: Chen, Yu-Fon, Shiau, Ai-Li, Wang, Sheng-Hu, Yang, Jai-Sing, Chang, Sue-Joan, Wu, Chao-Lia, Wu, Tian-Shu
    J Immunol, 2014-02-14;192(6):2778-86.
    Species: Bacteria - Taiwanofungus camphoratus
    Sample Types: Protein
    Applications: Bioassay
  17. Sialyl residues modulate LPS-mediated signaling through the Toll-like receptor 4 complex.
    Authors: Feng C, Stamatos NM, Dragan AI, Medvedev A, Whitford M, Zhang L, Song C, Rallabhandi P, Cole L, Nhu QM, Vogel SN, Geddes CD, Cross AS
    PLoS ONE, 2012-04-09;7(4):e32359.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  18. A cyanobacterial LPS antagonist prevents endotoxin shock and blocks sustained TLR4 stimulation required for cytokine expression.
    Authors: Macagno A, Molteni M, Rinaldi A
    J. Exp. Med., 2006-05-22;203(6):1481-92.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Buffer
    Applications: ELISA Developmet


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Recombinant Human MD-2 Protein
By Anonymous on 03/29/2021
Application: Binding assay/Protein-protein interaction

we use this protein to see interactions with MD2 antibody, it has a very good affinity towards MD2 monoclonal antibody in direct ELISA.