Recombinant Human PD-1 Fc Chimera Avi-tag Protein, CF Summary
Why choose R&D Systems Avi-tag PD-1 Protein?
- Guaranteed Bioactivity and High Purity: Bioactivity tested by functional ELISA and purity determined by SDS-PAGE to be greater than 95%.
- Lot-to-Lot Consistency: Stringent QC testing performed on each lot to ensure consistent activity and purity.
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Accession # Q15116.3
|HP, 3x (GGGS)||Avi-tag|
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 250 μg/mL in PBS.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
When Recombinant Human B7-H1/PD-L1 Fc Chimera (Catalog # 156-B7) is immobilized at 1 µg/mL, 100 µg/well, Recombinant Human PD-1 Fc Chimera Avi-tag (Catalog # AVI1086) binds with an ED50 of 0.01-0.09 µg/mL.
2 μg/lane of Biotinylated Recombinant Human PD-1 Fc Chimera Avi-tag (Catalog # AVI1086) was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by Coomassie® Blue staining, showing bands at 62-88 kDa and 120-180 kDa, respectively.
Programmed Death-1 receptor (PD-1), also known as CD279, is type I transmembrane protein belonging to the CD28 family of immune regulatory receptors (1). Other members of this family include CD28, CTLA-4, ICOS, and BTLA (2-5). Mature mouse PD-1 consists of a 149 amino acid (aa) extracellular region (ECD) with one immunoglobulin-like V-type domain, a 21 aa transmembrane domain, and a 98 aa cytoplasmic region. The mouse PD-1 ECD shares 65% aa sequence identity with the human PD-1 ECD. The cytoplasmic tail contains two tyrosine residues that form the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM) that are important for mediating PD-1 signaling. PD-1 acts as a monomeric receptor and interacts in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio with its ligands PD-L1 (B7-H1) and PD-L2 (B7-DC) (6, 7). PD‑1 is expressed on activated T cells, B cells, monocytes, and dendritic cells while PD-L1 expression is constitutive on the same cells and also on nonhematopoietic cells such as lung endothelial cells and hepatocytes (8, 9). Ligation of PD-L1 with PD-1 induces
co-inhibitory signals on T cells promoting their apoptosis, anergy, and functional exhaustion (10). Thus, the PD-1:PD-L1 interaction is a key regulator of the threshold of immune response and peripheral immune tolerance (11). Finally, blockade of the PD-1: PD-L1 interaction by either antibodies or genetic manipulation accelerates tumor eradication and shows potential for improving cancer immunotherapy (12, 13).
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- Zhang, X. et al. (2004) Immunity 20:337.
- Lázár-Molnár, E. et al. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:10483.
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- Keir, M.E. et al. (2008) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 26:677.
- Butte, M.J. et al. (2007) Immunity 27:111.
- Okazaki, T. et al. (2013) Nat. Immunol. 14:1212.
- Iwai, Y. et al. (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 12293.
- Nogrady, B. (2014) Nature 513:S10.
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