Recombinant Human PD-L1/B7-H1 His-tag Avi-tag Protein, CF Summary
Why choose R&D Systems Avi-tag PD-L1 Protein?
- Guaranteed Bioactivity and High Purity: Bioactivity tested by functional ELISA and purity determined by SDS-PAGE to be greater than 95%.
- Lot-to-Lot Consistency: Stringent QC testing performed on each lot to ensure consistent activity and purity.
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- Most Respected, Most Cited Brand in Proteins: With over 35 years of providing the best recombinant proteins to the scientific community, R&D Systems continues to lead the industry in quality, activity, and purity.
Find the Fc Chimera Avi-tag PD-L1 protein here Fc Chimera Avi-tag PD-L1 Protein
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CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 500 μg/mL in PBS.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
When Recombinant Human PD-1 Fc Chimera (Catalog # 1086-PD) is immobilized at 2 µg/mL, Biotinylated Recombinant Human PD-L1 His-tag Avi-tag protein binds with an ED50 of 2-12 µg/mL.
In a functional flow cytometry test, (A) Recombinant Human PD-L1/B7-H1 His-tag Avi-tag Protein (Catalog # AVI9049) binds to HEK293 human embryonic kidney cell line transfected with recombinant human PD-1 and EGFP. Ligand binding was detected by staining cells with APC-conjugated Streptavidin (Catalog # F0050), which does not stain the cells in the absence of recombinant protein (B).
2 μg/lane of Biotinylated Recombinant Human PD-L1/B7-H1 His Tag Avi Tag was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by Coomassie® Blue staining, showing bands at 35-41 kDa.
B7-H1, also known as PD-L1 and CD274, is an approximately 65-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein in the B7 family of immune regulatory molecules (1). Mature human B7-H1 consists of a 220 amino acid (aa) extracellular domain (ECD) with two immunoglobulin-like domains, a 21 aa transmembrane segment, and a 31 aa cytoplasmic domain (2). Within the ECD, human B7-H1 shares 73% and 74% aa sequence identity with mouse and rat B7-H1, respectively. Alternative splicing generates additional isoforms that either lack the first Ig-like domain or are truncated within the second Ig-like domain (3). B7-H1 is expressed on inflammatory-activated immune cells including macrophages, T cells, and B cells (4-7), keratinocytes (8, 9), endothelial and intestinal epithelial cells (8, 10), as well as a variety of carcinomas and melanoma (11, 12). B7-H1 binds to T cell B7-1/CD80 and PD-1 (7, 8, 12-15). It suppresses T cell activation and proliferation (5, 8, 14, 16) and induces the apoptosis of activated T cells (11). It plays a role in the development of immune tolerance by promoting T cell anergy (7, 14) and enhancing regulatory T cell development (16). B7-H1 favors the development of anti-inflammatory IL-10 and IL-22 producing dendritic cells (5, 10) and inhibits the development of Th17 cells (16). In cancer, B7-H1 provides resistance to T cell mediated lysis, enhances EMT, and enhances the tumorigenic function of Th22 cells (6, 9, 12, 15).
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