Recombinant Human Thrombopoietin (E. coli-expressed), CF

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
288-TPE-010
288-TPE-050
Recombinant Human Thrombopoietin (E. coli-expressed), CF Bioactivity
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Recombinant Human Thrombopoietin (E. coli-expressed), CF Summary

Purity
>95%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Activity
Measured in a cell proliferation assay using MO7e human megakaryocytic leukemic cells. Avanzi, G. et al. (1988) Br. J. Haematol. 69:359. The ED50 for this effect is 0.05-0.5 ng/mL.
Source
E. coli-derived human Thrombopoietin/Tpo protein
Ser22-Leu195
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Analysis
Ala & Ser22
Predicted Molecular Mass
18.7 kDa
SDS-PAGE
19 kDa, reducing conditions

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Bioactivity Recombinant Human Thrombopoietin (E. coli-expressed), CF Bioactivity View Larger

Recombinant Human Thrombopoietin/Tpo (Catalog # 288-TPE)stimulates proliferation in the MO7e human megakaryocytic leukemic cell line.The ED50 for this effect is 0.05-0.5 ng/mL, which is more than 2-fold more active than two competitors'.

SDS-PAGE Recombinant Human Thrombopoietin (E. coli-expressed), CF SDS-PAGE View Larger

2 μg/lane of Recombinant Human Thrombopoietin/Tpo was resolved with SDS-PAGE underreducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by Coomassie® Bluestaining, showing bands at 19 kDa and 18 kDa, respectively.

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Background: Thrombopoietin/Tpo

Thrombopoietin (Tpo), is a key regulator of megakaryocytopoiesis and thrombopoiesis. It is principally produced in the liver and is bound and internalized by the receptor Tpo R/c-mpl. Defects in the Tpo-Tpo R signaling pathway are associated with a variety of platelet disorders (1-3). The 353 amino acid (aa) human Tpo precursor is cleaved to yield the 332 aa mature protein. Mature human Tpo shares approximately 70% aa sequence homology with mouse and rat Tpo. It is an 80‑85 kDa protein that consists of an N‑terminal domain with homology to Erythropoietin (Epo) and a C‑terminal domain that contains multiple N‑linked and O-linked glycosylation sites (4, 5). Tissue specific alternate splicing of human Tpo generates multiple isoforms with internal deletions, insertions, and/or C‑terminal substitutions (6). Tpo promotes the differentiation, proliferation, and maturation of MK and their progenitors (4, 5, 7). Several other cytokines can promote these functions as well but only in cooperation with Tpo (8, 9). Notably, IL-3 independently induces MK development, although its effects are restricted to early in the MK lineage (8, 9). Tpo additionally promotes platelet production, aggregation, ECM adhesion, and activation (10-13). It is cleaved by platelet-derived thrombin following Arg191 within the C‑terminal domain and subsequently at other sites upon extended digestion (14). Both full length Tpo and shorter forms circulate in the plasma, with the shorter, N‑terminal EPO-like domain forms showing significantly increased specific activity (4, 5, 15). The C‑terminal domain is not required for binding to Tpo R or inducing MK growth and differentiation (5). Aside from its hematopoietic effects, Tpo is expressed in the brain where it promotes the apoptosis of hypoxia-sensitized neurons and inhibits neuronal differentiation by blocking NGF induced signaling (16, 17).

References
  1. Deutsch, V.R. and A. Tomer (2006) Br. J. Haematol. 134:453.
  2. Kaushansky, K. (2005) J. Clin. Invest. 115:3339.
  3. Li, J. et al. (1999) Br. J. Haematol. 106:345.
  4. Bartley, T.D. et al. (1994) Cell 77:1117.
  5. de Sauvage, F.J. et al. (1994) Nature 369:533.
  6. Marcucci, R. and M. Romano (2008) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1782:427.
  7. Kaushansky, K. et al. (1994) Nature 369:568.
  8. Kaushansky, K. et al. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 92:3234.
  9. Broudy, V.C. et al. (1995) Blood 85:1719.
  10. Lok, S.I. et al. (1994) Nature 369:565.
  11. Chen, J. et al. (1995) Blood 86:4054.
  12. Oda, A. et al. (1996) Blood 87:4664.
  13. Van Os, E. et al. (2003) Br. J. Haematol. 121:482.
  14. Kato, T. et al. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94:4669.
  15. Foster, D. & Hunt, P. (1997) Thrombopoiesis and Thrombopoietins 13:203.
  16. Ehrenreich, H. et al. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102:862.
  17. Samoylenko, A. et al. (2008) Cell. Signal. 20:154.
Entrez Gene IDs
7066 (Human); 21832 (Mouse); 81811 (Rat)
Alternate Names
Megakaryocyte colony-stimulating factor; Megakaryocyte growth and development factor; megakaryocyte stimulating factor; MGDF; MGDFC-mpl ligand; MK-CSF; ML; MPL ligand; MPLLGMGC163194; Myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene ligand; THPO; thrombopoietin nirs variant 1; Thrombopoietin; Tpo; TPOMKCSF

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