Recombinant Mouse GDF-15 Protein, CF Summary
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in HCl.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 250 μg/mL in 4 mM HCl.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
When Recombinant Mouse GDF-15 (Catalog # 8944-GD) is immobilized at 2 µg/mL (100 µL/well), the concentration of Recombinant Mouse Activin RIB/ALK-4 Fc Chimera (Catalog # 1477-AR) binds with a typical ED50 of 1-6 μg/mL.
1 μg/lane of Recombinant Mouse GDF-15 (Catalog # 8944-GD) was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing bands at 10.5 kDa and 22 kDa, respectively.
Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF-15), also called Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine 1 (MIC-1), Placental Transforming Growth Factor beta, Prostate-derived Factor, and Placental Bone Morphogenetic Protein, is a divergent member of the TGF-beta superfamily. Cellular responses to TGF-beta proteins are mediated by hetero-oligomeric complexes of type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors (1-3). GDF-15 is highly expressed in placenta and brain, and it is expressed at lower levels in kidney, pancreas, prostate, and colon. Similar to other TGF-beta family proteins, GDF-15 is synthesized as a large precursor protein that is cleaved at a dibasic cleavage site (RxxR) to release the mature protein. Mature mouse GDF-15 shares 66% and 97% amino acid sequence identity with the human and rat proteins, respectively. The C-terminal domain of GDF-15 contains seven characteristic conserved cysteine residues necessary for the formation of the cysteine knot and the single inter-chain disulfide bond (4, 5). Biologically active GDF-15 is a disulfide-linked homodimer of the mature protein. GDF-15 has been shown to have various functions, including inhibition of TNF-alpha production from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages and the induction of cartilage formation (2, 6). GDF-15 also promotes neuronal survival, and hypothalamic expression of GDF-15 causes appetite suppression via modulation of neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortin levels (7-10). GDF-15 is cardioprotective via inhibition of platelet activation, limiting atherosclerosis, promoting recovery following myocardial infarction, and regulating angiogenesis (11-15). Exposure of cardiomyocytes to GDF-15 results in Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation (16).
- Unsicker, K. et al. (2013) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 24:373.
- Bootcov, M.R. et al. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:11514.
- Fairlie, W.D. et al. (1999) J. Leukoc. Biol. 65:2.
- Fairlie, W.D. et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276:16911.
- Bauskin, A.R. et al. (2000) EMBO J. 19:2212.
- Paralkar, V.M. et al. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273:13760.
- Johnen, H. et al. (2007) Nat. Med. 13:1333.
- Strelau, J. et al. (2000) J. Neurosci. 20:8597.
- Breit, S.N. et al. (2011) Growth Factors 29:187.
- Strelau, J. et al. (2009) J. Neurosci. 29:13640.
- Whitson, R.J. et al. (2013) J. Cell. Biochem. 114:1424.
- Rossaint, J. et al. (2013) J. Thromb. Haemost. 11:335.
- Song, H. et al. (2012) Mol. Biol. Rep. 39:4017.
- Preusch, M.R. et al. (2013) Eur. J. Med. Res. 18:19.
- Kempf, T. et al. (2011) Nat. Med. 17:581.
- Xu, J. et al. (2006) Circ. Res. 98:342.
No product specific FAQs exist for this product, however you mayView all Proteins and Enzyme FAQs
Reviews for Recombinant Mouse GDF-15 Protein, CF
Average Rating: 4 (Based on 1 Review)
Have you used Recombinant Mouse GDF-15 Protein, CF?
Submit a review and receive an Amazon gift card.
$25/€18/£15/$25CAN/¥75 Yuan/¥1250 Yen for a review with an image
$10/€7/£6/$10 CAD/¥70 Yuan/¥1110 Yen for a review without an image