Recombinant Mouse GDF-15 Protein, CF Summary
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in HCl.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 250 μg/mL in 4 mM HCl.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
When Recombinant Mouse GDF-15 (Catalog # 8944-GD) is immobilized at 2 µg/mL (100 µL/well), the concentration of Recombinant Mouse Activin RIB/ALK-4 Fc Chimera (Catalog # 1477-AR) binds with a typical ED50 of 1-6 μg/mL.
1 μg/lane of Recombinant Mouse GDF-15 (Catalog # 8944-GD) was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing bands at 10.5 kDa and 22 kDa, respectively.
Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF-15), also called Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine 1 (MIC-1), Placental Transforming Growth Factor beta, Prostate-derived Factor, and Placental Bone Morphogenetic Protein, is a divergent member of the TGF-beta superfamily. Cellular responses to TGF-beta proteins are mediated by hetero-oligomeric complexes of type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors (1-3). GDF-15 is highly expressed in placenta and brain, and it is expressed at lower levels in kidney, pancreas, prostate, and colon. Similar to other TGF-beta family proteins, GDF-15 is synthesized as a large precursor protein that is cleaved at a dibasic cleavage site (RxxR) to release the mature protein. Mature mouse GDF-15 shares 66% and 97% amino acid sequence identity with the human and rat proteins, respectively. The C-terminal domain of GDF-15 contains seven characteristic conserved cysteine residues necessary for the formation of the cysteine knot and the single inter-chain disulfide bond (4, 5). Biologically active GDF-15 is a disulfide-linked homodimer of the mature protein. GDF-15 has been shown to have various functions, including inhibition of TNF-alpha production from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages and the induction of cartilage formation (2, 6). GDF-15 also promotes neuronal survival, and hypothalamic expression of GDF-15 causes appetite suppression via modulation of neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortin levels (7-10). GDF-15 is cardioprotective via inhibition of platelet activation, limiting atherosclerosis, promoting recovery following myocardial infarction, and regulating angiogenesis (11-15). Exposure of cardiomyocytes to GDF-15 results in Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation (16).
- Unsicker, K. et al. (2013) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 24:373.
- Bootcov, M.R. et al. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:11514.
- Fairlie, W.D. et al. (1999) J. Leukoc. Biol. 65:2.
- Fairlie, W.D. et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276:16911.
- Bauskin, A.R. et al. (2000) EMBO J. 19:2212.
- Paralkar, V.M. et al. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273:13760.
- Johnen, H. et al. (2007) Nat. Med. 13:1333.
- Strelau, J. et al. (2000) J. Neurosci. 20:8597.
- Breit, S.N. et al. (2011) Growth Factors 29:187.
- Strelau, J. et al. (2009) J. Neurosci. 29:13640.
- Whitson, R.J. et al. (2013) J. Cell. Biochem. 114:1424.
- Rossaint, J. et al. (2013) J. Thromb. Haemost. 11:335.
- Song, H. et al. (2012) Mol. Biol. Rep. 39:4017.
- Preusch, M.R. et al. (2013) Eur. J. Med. Res. 18:19.
- Kempf, T. et al. (2011) Nat. Med. 17:581.
- Xu, J. et al. (2006) Circ. Res. 98:342.
No product specific FAQs exist for this product, however you mayView all Proteins and Enzyme FAQs
Reviews for Recombinant Mouse GDF-15 Protein, CF
Average Rating: 4 (Based on 1 Review)
Have you used Recombinant Mouse GDF-15 Protein, CF?
Submit a review and receive an Amazon gift card.
$25/€18/£15/$25CAN/¥75 Yuan/¥1250 Yen for a review with an image
$10/€7/£6/$10 CAD/¥70 Yuan/¥1110 Yen for a review without an image