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OR

Recombinant Mouse IL-2 Protein

48 citations
  • Purity
    >97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
  • Activity
    Measured in a cell proliferation assay using CTLL‑2 mouse cytotoxic T cells. Gearing, A.J.H. and C.B. Bird (1987) in Lymphokines and Interferons, A Practical Approach. Clemens, M.J. et al. (eds): IRL Press. 295. The ED50 for this effect is typically 0.1-0.4 ng/mL.
  • Source
    E. coli-derived Ala21-Gln169, with and without an N-terminal Met Accession # P04351
  • Accession #
  • N-terminal Sequence
    Analysis
    Ala21 & Met
  • Predicted Molecular Mass
    17.2 kDa
Carrier Free
What does CF mean?
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
What formulation is right for me?
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
402-ML
 
402-ML/CF
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Sodium Citrate and Tween®-80 with BSA as a carrier protein.
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Sodium Citrate and Tween®-80.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100-200 μg/mL in sterile PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100-200 μg/mL in sterile deionized water.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Data Images
1 µg/lane of Recombinant Mouse IL-2 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing a band(s) at 19 kDa.
Recombinant Mouse IL-2 (Catalog # 402‑ML) stimulates cell proliferation of the CTLL‑2 mouse cytotoxic T cell line. The ED50 for this effect is typically 0.1‑0.4 ng/mL.
Background: Interleukin 2

Interleukin‑2 (IL‑2) is a O‑glycosylated four alpha ‑helix bundle cytokine that has potent stimulatory activity for antigen‑activated T cells. It is expressed by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, gamma δ T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils (1‑3). Mature mouse IL‑2 shares 56% and 73% aa sequence identity with human and rat IL‑2, respectively. It shows strain‑specific heterogeneity in an N‑terminal region that contains a poly‑glutamine stretch (4). Mouse and human IL‑2 exhibit cross‑species activity (5). The receptor for IL‑2 consists of three subunits that are present on the cell surface in varying preformed complexes (6‑8). The 55 kDa IL‑2 R alpha is specific for IL‑2 and binds with low affinity. The 75 kDa IL‑2 R beta, which is also a component of the IL‑15 receptor, binds IL‑2 with intermediate affinity. The 64 kDa common gamma chain gamma c/IL-2 R gamma, which is shared with the receptors for IL‑4, ‑7, ‑9, ‑15, and ‑21, does not independently interact with IL‑2. Upon ligand binding, signal transduction is performed by both IL‑2 R beta and gamma c. IL‑2 is best known for its autocrine and paracrine activity on T cells. It drives resting T cells to proliferate and induces IL‑2 and IL‑2 R alpha synthesis (1, 2). It contributes to T cell homeostasis by promoting the Fas‑induced death of naïve CD4+ T cells but not activated CD4+ memory lymphocytes (9). IL‑2 plays a central role in the expansion and maintenance of regulatory T cells, although it inhibits the development of Th17 polarized cells (10‑12). Thus, IL‑2 may be a key cytokine in the natural suppression of autoimmunity (13, 14).

  • References:
    1. Ma, A. et al. (2006) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 24:657.
    2. Gaffen, S.L. and K.D. Liu (2004) Cytokine 28:109.
    3. Kashima, N. et al. (1985) Nature 313:402.
    4. Matesanz, F. et al. (1993) Immunogenetics 38:300.
    5. Mosmann, T.R. et al. (1987) J. Immunol. 138:1813.
    6. Liparoto, S.F. et al. (2002) Biochemistry 41:2543.
    7. Wang, X. et al. (2005) Science 310:1159.
    8. Bodnar, A. et al. (2008) Immunol. Lett. 116:117.
    9. Jaleco, S. et al. (2003) J. Immunol. 171:61.
    10. Malek, T.R. (2003) J. Leukoc. Biol. 74:961.
    11. Laurence, A. et al. (2007) Immunity 26:371.
    12. Kryczek, I. et al. (2007) J. Immunol. 178:6730.
    13. Afzali, B. et al. (2007) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 148:32.
    14. Fehervari, Z. et al. (2006) Trends Immunol. 27:109.
  • Long Name:
    Interleukin 2
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    3558 (Human); 16183 (Mouse); 116562 (Rat); 396868 (Porcine); 280822 (Bovine); 403989 (Canine); 100034204 (Equine); 751114 (Feline); 100302458 (Rabbit);
  • Alternate Names:
    aldesleukin; Aldesleukin; IL-2lymphokine; interleukin 2; interleukin-2; involved in regulation of T-cell clonal expansion; T cell growth factor; T-cell growth factor; TCGF
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

Showing Results 1 - 10 of 48
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Species
Applications
  1. Mammalian diaphanous-related formin 1 regulates GSK3beta-dependent microtubule dynamics required for T cell migratory polarization.
    Authors: Dong B, Zhang S, Gao W, Su H, Chen J, Jin F, Bhargava A, Chen X, Jorgensen L, Alberts A, Zhang J, Siminovitch K
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(11):e80500.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  2. Apoptotic programs are determined during lineage commitment of CD4+ T effectors: selective regulation of T effector-memory apoptosis by inducible nitric oxide synthase.
    Authors: Purushothaman D, Marcel N, Garg M, Venkataraman R, Sarin A
    J Immunol, 2012;190(1):97-105.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: cell culture
  3. Interleukin 17-producing CD4+ effector T cells develop via a lineage distinct from the T helper type 1 and 2 lineages.
    Authors: Harrington, Laurie E, Hatton, Robin D, Mangan, Paul R, Turner, Henriett, Murphy, Theresa, Murphy, Kenneth, Weaver, Casey T
    Nat Immunol, 2005;6(11):1123-32.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  4. Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant (GLA), a Synthetic TLR4 agonist, promotes potent systemic and mucosal responses to intranasal immunization with HIVgp140.
    Authors: Arias, Mauricio, Van Roey, Griet A, Tregoning, John S, Moutaftsi, Magdalin, Coler, Rhea N, Windish, Hillarie, Reed, Steven G, Carter, Darrick, Shattock, Robin J
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(7):e41144.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  5. Ultraviolet radiation inhibits interleukin-2-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and the activation of STAT5 in T lymphocytes.
    Authors: Kulms D, Schwarz T
    J. Biol. Chem., 2006;276(16):12849-55.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  6. Innate lymphoid cells promote lung-tissue homeostasis after infection with influenza virus.
    Authors: Monticelli LA, Sonnenberg GF, Abt MC
    Nat. Immunol., 2011;12(11):1045-54.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  7. Differential outcome of IL-2/anti-IL-2 complex therapy on effector and memory CD8+ T cells following vaccination with an adenoviral vector encoding EBV epitopes.
    Authors: Smith C, Martinez M, Peet J, Khanna R
    J. Immunol., 2011;186(10):5784-90.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: In Vivo
  8. Antigen-specific CD25- Foxp3- IFN-gamma(high) CD4+ T cells restrain the development of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by suppressing Th17.
    Authors: Wildbaum G, Zohar Y, Karin N
    Am. J. Pathol., 2010;176(6):2764-75.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  9. CD94 defines phenotypically and functionally distinct mouse NK cell subsets.
    Authors: Yu J, Wei M, Mao H, Zhang J, Hughes T, Mitsui T, Park IK, Hwang C, Liu S, Marcucci G, Trotta R, Benson DM, Caligiuri MA
    J. Immunol., 2009;183(8):4968-74.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: In Vivo
  10. Activin A functions as a Th2 cytokine in the promotion of the alternative activation of macrophages.
    Authors: Ogawa K, Funaba M, Chen Y, Tsujimoto M
    J. Immunol., 2006;177(10):6787-94.
  11. Two novel NKG2D ligands of the mouse H60 family with differential expression patterns and binding affinities to NKG2D.
    Authors: Takada A, Yoshida S, Kajikawa M, Miyatake Y, Tomaru U, Sakai M, Chiba H, Maenaka K, Kohda D, Fugo K, Kasahara M
    J. Immunol., 2008;180(3):1678-85.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  12. CXCL10 is the key ligand for CXCR3 on CD8+ effector T cells involved in immune surveillance of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-infected central nervous system.
    Authors: Christensen JE, de Lemos C, Moos T, Christensen JP, Thomsen AR
    J. Immunol., 2006;176(7):4235-43.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  13. Cytopiloyne, a novel polyacetylenic glucoside from Bidens pilosa, functions as a T helper cell modulator.
    Authors: Chiang YM, Chang CL, Chang SL, Yang WC, Shyur LF
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2007;110(3):532-8.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  14. A soluble BAFF antagonist, BR3-Fc, decreases peripheral blood B cells and lymphoid tissue marginal zone and follicular B cells in cynomolgus monkeys.
    Authors: Vugmeyster Y, Seshasayee D, Chang W, Storn A, Howell K, Sa S, Nelson T, Martin F, Grewal I, Gilkerson E, Wu B, Thompson J, Ehrenfels BN, Ren S, Song A, Gelzleichter TR, Danilenko DM
    Am. J. Pathol., 2006;168(2):476-89.
    Species: Primate – Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus/Crab-eating Monkey)
    Application: Bioassay
  15. Leukemia inhibitory factor inhibits T helper 17 cell differentiation and confers treatment effects of neural progenitor cell therapy in autoimmune disease.
    Authors: Cao W, Yang Y, Wang Z, Liu A, Fang L, Wu F, Hong J, Shi Y, Leung S, Dong C, Zhang JZ
    Immunity, 2011;35(2):273-84.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  16. The survival of memory CD8 T cells that is mediated by IL-15 correlates with sustained protection against malaria.
    Authors: Zarling S, Berenzon D, Dalai S, Liepinsh D, Steers N, Krzych U
    J Immunol, 2013;190(10):5128-41.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  17. The induction of antibody production by IL-6 is indirectly mediated by IL-21 produced by CD4+ T cells.
    Authors: Dienz O, Eaton SM, Bond JP, Neveu W, Moquin D, Noubade R, Briso EM, Charland C, Leonard WJ, Ciliberto G, Teuscher C, Haynes L, Rincon M
    J. Exp. Med., 2009;206(1):69-78.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  18. Involvement of an NKG2D ligand H60c in epidermal dendritic T cell-mediated wound repair.
    Authors: Yoshida S, Mohamed RH, Kajikawa M, Koizumi J, Tanaka M, Fugo K, Otsuka N, Maenaka K, Yagita H, Chiba H, Kasahara M
    J. Immunol., 2012;188(8):3972-9.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  19. IL-33-responsive lineage- CD25+ CD44(hi) lymphoid cells mediate innate type 2 immunity and allergic inflammation in the lungs.
    Authors: Bartemes KR, Iijima K, Kobayashi T, Kephart GM, McKenzie AN, Kita H
    J. Immunol., 2011;188(3):1503-13.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  20. In vivo blockade of OX40 ligand inhibits thymic stromal lymphopoietin driven atopic inflammation.
    Authors: Seshasayee D, Lee WP, Zhou M, Shu J, Suto E, Zhang J, Diehl L, Austin CD, Meng YG, Tan M, Bullens SL, Seeber S, Fuentes ME, Labrijn AF, Graus YM, Miller LA, Schelegle ES, Hyde DM, Wu LC, Hymowitz SG, Martin F
    J. Clin. Invest., 2007;117(12):3868-3878.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  21. Dopamine, through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway, downregulates CD4+CD25+ regulatory T-cell activity: implications for neurodegeneration.
    Authors: Kipnis J, Cardon M, Avidan H, Lewitus GM, Mordechay S, Rolls A, Shani Y, Schwartz M
    J. Neurosci., 2004;24(27):6133-43.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  22. Control of Leishmania major in the absence of Tyk2 kinase.
    Authors: Schleicher U, Mattner J, Blos M, Schindler H, Rollinghoff M, Karaghiosoff M, Muller M, Werner-Felmayer G, Bogdan C
    Eur. J. Immunol., 2004;34(2):519-29.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  23. Cytokine-dependent regulation of NADPH oxidase activity and the consequences for activated T cell homeostasis.
    Authors: Purushothaman D, Sarin A
    J. Exp. Med., 2009;206(7):1515-23.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  24. Influence of galectin-9/Tim-3 interaction on herpes simplex virus-1 latency.
    Authors: Reddy PB, Sehrawat S, Suryawanshi A
    J. Immunol., 2011;187(11):5745-55.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  25. Interleukin-2 gene variation impairs regulatory T cell function and causes autoimmunity.
    Authors: Yamanouchi J, Rainbow D, Serra P, Howlett S, Hunter K, Garner VE, Gonzalez-Munoz A, Clark J, Veijola R, Cubbon R, Chen SL, Rosa R, Cumiskey AM, Serreze DV, Gregory S, Rogers J, Lyons PA, Healy B, Smink LJ, Todd JA, Peterson LB, Wicker LS, Santamaria P
    Nat. Genet., 2007;39(3):329-37.
  26. CD69 regulates type I IFN-induced tolerogenic signals to mucosal CD4 T cells that attenuate their colitogenic potential.
    Authors: Radulovic K, Manta C, Rossini V, Holzmann K, Kestler HA, Wegenka UM, Nakayama T, Niess JH
    J. Immunol., 2012;188(4):2001-13.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  27. TH17 cells mediate steroid-resistant airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in mice.
    Authors: McKinley L, Alcorn JF, Peterson A, Dupont RB, Kapadia S, Logar A, Henry A, Irvin CG, Piganelli JD, Ray A, Kolls JK
    J. Immunol., 2008;181(6):4089-97.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  28. T-bet inhibits both TH2 cell-mediated eosinophil recruitment and TH17 cell-mediated neutrophil recruitment into the airways.
    Authors: Fujiwara M, Hirose K, Kagami S, Takatori H, Wakashin H, Tamachi T, Watanabe N, Saito Y, Iwamoto I, Nakajima H
    J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2007;119(3):662-70.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  29. NFIL3/E4BP4 controls type 2 T helper cell cytokine expression.
    Authors: Kashiwada M, Cassel SL, Colgan JD
    EMBO J., 2011;30(10):2071-82.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  30. IL-2 is essential for TGF-beta to convert naive CD4+CD25- cells to CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and for expansion of these cells.
    Authors: Zheng SG, Wang J, Wang P, Gray JD, Horwitz DA
    J. Immunol., 2007;178(4):2018-27.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  31. Evidence for a role for notch signaling in the cytokine-dependent survival of activated T cells.
    Authors: Bheeshmachar G, Purushotaman D, Sade H, Gunasekharan V, Rangarajan A, Sarin A
    J. Immunol., 2006;177(8):5041-50.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  32. IL-21 induces the functional maturation of murine NK cells.
    Authors: Brady J, Hayakawa Y, Smyth MJ, Nutt SL
    J. Immunol., 2004;172(4):2048-58.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  33. Proinflammatory clearance of apoptotic neutrophils induces an IL-12(low)IL-10(high) regulatory phenotype in macrophages.
    Authors: Filardy AA, Pires DR, Nunes MP, Takiya CM, Freire-de-Lima CG, Ribeiro-Gomes FL, DosReis GA
    J. Immunol., 2010;185(4):2044-50.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  34. Atherogenic effect of interleukin-2 and antiatherogenic effect of interleukin-2 antibody in apo-E-deficient mice.
    Authors: Upadhya S, Mooteri S, Peckham N, Pai RG
    Angiology, 2004;55(3):289-94.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: In Vivo
  35. Ig-reactive CD4+CD25+ T cells from tolerized (New Zealand Black x New Zealand White)F1 mice suppress in vitro production of antibodies to DNA.
    Authors: La Cava A, Ebling FM, Hahn BH
    J. Immunol., 2004;173(5):3542-8.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  36. Homeostatic imbalance of regulatory and effector T cells due to IL-2 deprivation amplifies murine lupus.
    Authors: Humrich JY, Morbach H, Undeutsch R, Enghard P, Rosenberger S, Weigert O, Kloke L, Heimann J, Gaber T, Brandenburg S, Scheffold A, Huehn J, Radbruch A, Burmester GR, Riemekasten G
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2010;107(1):204-9.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: In Vivo
  37. 3BP2 deficiency impairs the response of B cells, but not T cells, to antigen receptor ligation.
    Authors: de la Fuente MA, Kumar L, Lu B, Geha RS
    Mol. Cell. Biol., 2006;26(14):5214-25.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  38. Moesin controls clathrin-mediated S1PR1 internalization in T cells.
    Authors: Nomachi, Akira, Yoshinaga, Masanori, Liu, Jaron, Kanchanawong, Pakorn, Tohyama, Kiyoshi, Thumkeo, Dean, Watanabe, Takeshi, Narumiya, Shuh, Hirata, Takako
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(12):e82590.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  39. Dissociated expression of natural killer 1.1 and T-cell receptor by invariant natural killer T cells after interleukin-12 receptor and T-cell receptor signalling.
    Authors: Emoto M, Shimizu T, Koike H, Yoshizawa I, Hurwitz R, Kaufmann SH, Emoto Y
    Immunology, 2010;129(1):62-74.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  40. Pathogenic conversion of Foxp3+ T cells into TH17 cells in autoimmune arthritis.
    Authors: Komatsu N, Okamoto K, Sawa S, Nakashima T, Oh-hora M, Kodama T, Tanaka S, Bluestone J, Takayanagi H
    Nat Med, 2014;20(1):62-8.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  41. Interleukin-1 family cytokines as mucosal vaccine adjuvants for induction of protective immunity against influenza virus.
    Authors: Kayamuro H, Yoshioka Y, Abe Y, Arita S, Katayama K, Nomura T, Yoshikawa T, Kubota-Koketsu R, Ikuta K, Okamoto S, Mori Y, Kunisawa J, Kiyono H, Itoh N, Nagano K, Kamada H, Tsutsumi Y, Tsunoda S
    J. Virol., 2010;84(24):12703-12.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: In Vivo
  42. The encephalitogenicity of T(H)17 cells is dependent on IL-1- and IL-23-induced production of the cytokine GM-CSF.
    Authors: El-Behi M, Ciric B, Dai H
    Nat. Immunol., 2011;12(6):568-75.
  43. Characterization of in vitro antimurine thymocyte globulin-induced regulatory T cells that inhibit graft-versus-host disease in vivo.
    Authors: Ruzek MC, Waire JS, Hopkins D, Lacorcia G, Sullivan J, Roberts BL, Richards SM, Nahill SR, Williams JM, Scaria A, Dzuris J, Shankara S, Garman RD
    Blood, 2007;111(3):1726-34.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  44. Identification of cardiac troponin I sequence motifs leading to heart failure by induction of myocardial inflammation and fibrosis.
    Authors: Kaya Z, Goser S, Buss SJ, Leuschner F, Ottl R, Li J, Volkers M, Zittrich S, Pfitzer G, Rose NR, Katus HA
    Circulation, 2008;118(20):2063-72.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  45. Regulation of innate CD8+ T-cell activation mediated by cytokines.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2012;109(25):9971-6.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  46. Identification of a murine CD28 dileucine motif that suppresses single-chain chimeric T-cell receptor expression and function.
    Authors: Nguyen P, Moisini I, Geiger TL
    Blood, 2003;102(13):4320-5.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  47. Protection of CD8+ T cells from activation-induced cell death by IL-18.
    Authors: Li W, Kashiwamura S, Ueda H, Sekiyama A, Okamura H
    J. Leukoc. Biol., 2007;82(1):142-51.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
  48. Allergic pulmonary inflammation in mice is dependent on eosinophil-induced recruitment of effector T cells.
    Authors: Jacobsen EA, Ochkur SI, Pero RS, Taranova AG, Protheroe CA, Colbert DC, Lee NA, Lee JJ
    J. Exp. Med., 2008;205(3):699-710.
    Species: Mouse
    Application: Bioassay
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    402-ML
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