Recombinant Rat GITR Ligand/TNFSF18 Protein, CF

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Recombinant Rat GITR Ligand/TNFSF18 Protein Bioactivity
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Product Details
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Recombinant Rat GITR Ligand/TNFSF18 Protein, CF Summary

Product Specifications

>85%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Measured by its ability to induce IL-8 secretion in HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells transfected with rat GITR. The ED50 for this effect is 0.06-0.6 μg/mL in the presence of Mouse Anti-Hemagglutinin/HA Peptide Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB060).
Mouse myeloma cell line, NS0-derived rat GITR Ligand/TNFSF18 protein
Thr74-Ser200, with a N-terminal HA-tag
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Predicted Molecular Mass
16 kDa
19-22 kDa, reducing conditions

Product Datasheets

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Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.


Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 500 μg/mL in PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage:
  • 12 months from date of receipt, ≤ -20 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, ≤ -20 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Scientific Data

Bioactivity Recombinant Rat GITR Ligand/TNFSF18 Protein Bioactivity View Larger

Recombinant Rat GITR Ligand/TNFSF18 (Catalog # 9735-GL) induces IL-8 secretion in HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells transfected with rat GITR. The ED50 for this effect is 0.06-0.6 µg/mL.

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Background: GITR Ligand/TNFSF18

GITR Ligand, also known as TNFSF18 and TL6, is an approximately 30 kDa type II transmembrane glycoprotein in the TNF superfamily (1). Rat GITR Ligand consists of a 20 amino acid (aa) cytoplasmic domain, a 21 aa transmembrane segment, and a 132 aa extracellular domain (ECD) (2-4). Within the ECD, rat GITR Ligand shares 60.6% and 81.1% aa sequence identity with human and mouse GITR Ligand, respectively. GITR Ligand is expressed on antigen presenting cells, CD4-CD8- double negative thymic precursors, vascular endothelial cells, neurons, and in the eye (4-11). Its expression is transiently up-regulated by proinflammatory stimulation (5, 8, 11). The binding of GITR Ligand to GITR on mouse CD25+ T reg cells permits the reactivation of T cells from Treg-induced suppression, although this does not appear to occur in humans (9, 12-14). GITR Ligand binding to GITR additionally provides a co-stimulatory signal to activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and NK cells (6, 15, 16). This interaction also induces reverse signaling in GITR Ligand expressing dendritic cells to suppress cellular activation through the same pathway induced by the immunosuppressant dexamethasone (17). In the brain, GITR Ligand/GITR interactions enhance NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth from sympathetic neurons (10).

  1. Azuma, M. (2010) Crit. Rev. Immunol. 30:547.
  2. Yu, K.Y. et al. (2003) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 310:433.
  3. Kim, J.D. et al. (2003) Genes Immun. 4:564.
  4. Tone, M. et al. (2003) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 100:15059.
  5. Stephens, G.L. et al. (2004) J. Immunol. 173:5008.
  6. Hanabuchi, S. et al. (2006) Blood 107:3617.
  7. Kamimura, Y. et al. (2009) J. Immunol. 182:2708.
  8. Hwang, H. et al. (2010) J. Neurosci. Res. 88:2188.
  9. Tuyaerts, S. et al. (2007) J. Leukoc. Biol. 82:93.
  10. O'Keefe, G.W. et al. (2008) Nat. Neurosci. 11:135.
  11. Kim, B.J. et al. (2004) Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45:3170.
  12. Shimizu, J. et al. (2002) Nat. Immunol. 3:135.
  13. Ji, H. et al. (2004) J. Immunol. 172:5823.
  14. McHugh, R.S. et al. (2002) Immunity 16:311.
  15. Kanamaru, F. et al. (2004) J. Immunol. 172:7306.
  16. Ronchetti, S. et al. (2004) Eur. J. Immunol. 34:613.
  17. Grohmann, U. et al. (2007) Nat. Med. 13:579.
Long Name
Glucocorticoid Induced TNF Receptor Family Related Gene Ligand
Entrez Gene IDs
8995 (Human); 240873 (Mouse); 364031 (Rat)
Alternate Names
Activation-inducible TNF-related ligand; AITRL; AITRLMGC138237; GITR Ligand; GITRL; GITRLglucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein ligand; Glucocorticoid-induced TNF-related ligand; hGITRLGITR ligand; TL6AITR ligand; TNFSF18; tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, member 18; tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 18

Citation for Recombinant Rat GITR Ligand/TNFSF18 Protein, CF

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

1 Citation: Showing 1 - 1

  1. GITR/GITRL reverse signalling modulates the proliferation of hepatic progenitor cells by recruiting ANXA2 to phosphorylate ERK1/2 and Akt
    Authors: Y He, Y Pei, K Liu, L Liu, Y Tian, H Li, M Cong, T Liu, H Ma, H You, J Jia, D Zhang, P Wang
    Cell Death & Disease, 2022;13(4):297.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Cell Culture


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