Recombinant Rat VEGF 164 Protein, CF

Formulations:
Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
564-RV-010/CF
564-RV-050/CF
Recombinant Rat VEGF 164 Protein, CF Data
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Product Details
Citations (26)
FAQs
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Recombinant Rat VEGF 164 Protein, CF Summary

Purity
>95%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Activity
Measured in a cell proliferation assay using HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Conn, G. et al. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:1323. The ED50 for this effect is 0.75-3.75 ng/mL.
Source
Mouse myeloma cell line, NS0-derived rat VEGF protein
Ala27-Arg190
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Analysis
Ala27
Structure / Form
Disulfide-linked homodimer
Predicted Molecular Mass
19.2 kDa (monomer)
SDS-PAGE
25 kDa, reducing conditions

Product Datasheets

Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.

564-RV/CF

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

564-RV

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with BSA as a carrier protein.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Data Images

Bioactivity View Larger

Recombinant Rat VEGF164(Catalog # 564‑RV/CF) stimulates cell proliferation in HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. The ED50is 0.75-3.75 ng/mL.

SDS-PAGE View Larger

1 μg/lane of Recombinant Rat VEGF164was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing bands at 25 kDa and 54 kDa, respectively.

Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.

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Background: VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF or VEGF-A), also known as vascular permeability factor (VPF), is a potent mediator of both angiogenesis and vasculogenesis in the fetus and adult (1-3). It is a member of the PDGF family that is characterized by a cysteine-knot structure formed by eight conserved cysteine residues (4). Alternately spliced isoforms of 121, 145, 165, 183, 189, and 206 amino acids (aa) have been identified in humans, with 120, 164 and 188 aa isoforms found in rat and mouse (2, 4). Isoforms other than VEGF120 and VEGF121 contain basic heparin-binding regions and are not freely diffusible (4). Rat VEGF164 shares 97% aa sequence identity with corresponding regions of mouse, 88% with human and bovine, 89% with porcine and canine, and 90% with feline and equine VEGF, respectively. VEGF binds the type I transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases VEGF R1 (also called Flt-1) and VEGF R2 (Flk-1/KDR) on endothelial cells (4). Although affinity is highest for binding to VEGF R1, VEGF R2 appears to be the primary mediator of VEGF angiogenic activity (3, 4). Human VEGF165 binds the semaphorin receptor, neuropilin-1 and promotes complex formation with VEGF R2 (5). VEGF is required during embryogenesis to regulate the proliferation, migration, and survival of endothelial cells (3, 4). In adults, VEGF functions mainly in wound healing and the female reproductive cycle (3). Pathologically, it is involved in tumor angiogenesis and vascular leakage (6, 7). Circulating VEGF levels correlate with disease activity in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus (8). VEGF is induced by hypoxia and cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, oncostatin M and TNF-alpha (3, 4, 9).

References
  1. Conn, G. et al. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 87:2628.
  2. Ishii, H. et al. (2001) Arch. Oral Biol. 46:77.
  3. Byrne, A.M. et al. (2005) J. Cell. Mol. Med. 9:777.
  4. Robinson, C.J. and Stringer, S.E. (2001) J. Cell. Sci. 114:853.
  5. Pan, Q. et al. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282:24049.
  6. Weis, S.M. & D.A. Cheresh (2005) Nature 437:497.
  7. Thurston, G. (2002) J. Anat. 200:575.
  8. Carvalho, J.F. et al. (2007) J. Clin. Immunol. 27:246.
  9. Angelo, L.S. & R. Kurzrock (2007) Clin. Cancer Res. 13:2825.
Long Name
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
Entrez Gene IDs
7422 (Human); 22339 (Mouse); 83785 (Rat); 281572 (Bovine); 403802 (Canine); 493845 (Feline); 30682 (Zebrafish)
Alternate Names
MVCD1; VAS; vascular endothelial growth factor A; Vascular permeability factor; Vasculotropin; VEGF; VEGFA; VEGF-A; VEGFMGC70609; VPF; VPFvascular endothelial growth factor

Citations for Recombinant Rat VEGF 164 Protein, CF

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

26 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Dietary compound glycyrrhetinic acid suppresses tumor angiogenesis and growth by modulating antiangiogenic and proapoptotic pathways in vitro and in vivo
    Authors: J Li, F Tang, R Li, Z Chen, SM Lee, C Fu, J Zhang, GP Leung
    J. Nutr. Biochem., 2019;77(0):108268.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: Bioassay
  2. The combinatory effect of sinusoidal electromagnetic field and VEGF promotes osteogenesis and angiogenesis of mesenchymal stem cell-laden PCL/HA implants in a rat subcritical cranial defect
    Authors: J Chen, C Tu, X Tang, H Li, J Yan, Y Ma, H Wu, C Liu
    Stem Cell Res Ther, 2019;10(1):379.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  3. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis of VEGF-A in Rat Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells
    Authors: SA Mousavi, F Skjeldal, MS Fønhus, LH Haugen, W Eskild, T Berg, O Bakke
    Biomed Res Int, 2019;2019(0):5496197.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  4. Effects of Triple-Mutated Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1? on Angiogenesis and Cardiac Function Improvement in Rats with Myocardial Infarction
    Authors: M Li, Y Cui, W He, X Deng, Y Wang, M Cai, Y Wang, J Pei, X Mei, P Wu
    Cell. Physiol. Biochem., 2018;50(6):2329-2340.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  5. Downregulation of TRPC6 expression is a critical molecular event during FK506 treatment for overactive bladder
    Authors: C Chang, K Li, S Jiang, B Li, L Cao, P Wang
    Cell Calcium, 2018;77(0):8-19.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  6. Functional Characterization of Abicipar-Pegol, an Anti-VEGF DARPin Therapeutic That Potently Inhibits Angiogenesis and Vascular Permeability
    Authors: GA Rodrigues, M Mason, LA Christie, C Hansen, LM Hernandez, J Burke, KA Luhrs, TC Hohman
    Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 2018;59(15):5836-5846.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Recombinant Protein
    Applications: Bioassay
  7. In-vivo quantification of the revascularization of a human acellular dermis seeded with EPCs and MSCs in co-culture with fibroblasts and pericytes in the dorsal chamber model in pre-irradiated tissue
    Authors: M Vitacolonn
    Cell Tissue Bank, 2016;0(0):.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  8. Caspase-3 dependent nitrergic neuronal apoptosis following cavernous nerve injury is mediated via RhoA and ROCK activation in major pelvic ganglion
    Sci Rep, 2016;6(0):29416.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: Bioassay
  9. Angiogenic microspheres promote neural regeneration and motor function recovery after spinal cord injury in rats
    Sci Rep, 2016;6(0):33428.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  10. Experimental orthotopic transplantation of a tissue-engineered oesophagus in rats.
    Authors: Sjoqvist S, Jungebluth P, Lim M, Haag J, Gustafsson Y, Lemon G, Baiguera S, Burguillos M, Del Gaudio C, Rodriguez A, Sotnichenko A, Kublickiene K, Ullman H, Kielstein H, Damberg P, Bianco A, Heuchel R, Zhao Y, Ribatti D, Ibarra C, Joseph B, Taylor D, Macchiarini P
    Nat Commun, 2014;5(0):3562.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Complex Sample Type
    Applications: Bioassay
  11. Filarial excretory-secretory products induce human monocytes to produce lymphangiogenic mediators.
    Authors: Weinkopff T, Mackenzie C, Eversole R, Lammie P
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2014;8(7):e2893.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  12. A novel nonradioactive method to evaluate vascular barrier breakdown and leakage.
    Authors: Trichonas G, Manola A, Morizane Y, Thanos A, Koufomichali X, Papakostas TD, Montezuma S, Young L, Miller JW, Gragoudas E, Vavvas D
    Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 2010;51(3):1677-82.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  13. Effect of local sequential VEGF and BMP-2 delivery on ectopic and orthotopic bone regeneration.
    Authors: Kempen DH, Lu L, Heijink A, Hefferan TE, Creemers LB, Maran A, Yaszemski MJ, Dhert WJ
    Biomaterials, 2009;30(14):2816-25.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  14. Blockade of Wnt signaling inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in hepatocellular carcinoma.
    Authors: Hu J, Dong A, Fernandez-Ruiz V, Shan J, Kawa M, Martinez-Anso E, Prieto J, Qian C
    Cancer Res., 2009;69(17):6951-9.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  15. Production of scFv antibody fragments from a hybridoma with functional activity against human vascular endothelial growth factor.
    Authors: Irani Y, Brereton HM, Tilton RG
    Hybridoma (Larchmt), 2009;28(3):205-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
    Applications: Binding Assay
  16. Characterization of azurocidin as a permeability factor in the retina: involvement in VEGF-induced and early diabetic blood-retinal barrier breakdown.
    Authors: Skondra D, Noda K, Almulki L, Tayyari F, Frimmel S, Nakazawa T, Kim IK, Zandi S, Thomas KL, Miller JW, Gragoudas ES, Hafezi-Moghadam A
    Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 2008;49(2):726-31.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  17. The effect of sustained delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor on angiogenesis in tissue-engineered intestine.
    Authors: Rocha FG, Sundback CA, Krebs NJ, Leach JK, Mooney DJ, Ashley SW, Vacanti JP, Whang EE
    Biomaterials, 2008;29(19):2884-90.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  18. VEGF promotes vascular sympathetic innervation.
    Authors: Marko SB, Damon DH
    Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol., 2008;294(6):H2646-52.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  19. Effect of VEGF-A on expression of profibrotic growth factor and extracellular matrix genes in the retina.
    Authors: Kuiper EJ, Hughes JM, Van Geest RJ, Vogels IM, Goldschmeding R, Van Noorden CJ, Schlingemann RO, Klaassen I
    Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 2007;48(9):4267-76.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  20. Homogeneous differentiation of hepatocyte-like cells from embryonic stem cells: applications for the treatment of liver failure.
    Authors: Cho CH, Parashurama N, Park EY, Suganuma K, Nahmias Y, Park J, Tilles AW, Berthiaume F, Yarmush ML
    FASEB J., 2007;22(3):898-909.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  21. The injury response of oligodendrocyte precursor cells is induced by platelets, macrophages and inflammation-associated cytokines.
    Authors: Rhodes KE, Raivich G, Fawcett JW
    Neuroscience, 2006;140(1):87-100.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  22. Salvage effect of the vascular endothelial growth factor on chemically induced acute severe liver injury in rats.
    Authors: Namisaki T, Yoshiji H, Kojima H, Yoshii J, Ikenaka Y, Noguchi R, Sakurai S, Yanase K, Kitade M, Yamazaki M, Asada K, Uemura M, Nakamura M, Fukui H
    J. Hepatol., 2006;44(3):568-75.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  23. Antiangiogenic effect of metronomic paclitaxel treatment in prostate cancer and non-tumor tissue in the same animals: a quantitative study.
    Authors: Lennernas B, Albertsson P, Damber JE, Norrby K
    APMIS, 2004;112(3):201-9.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  24. Marked inhibition of retinal neovascularization in rats following soluble-flt-1 gene transfer.
    Authors: Rota R, Riccioni T, Zaccarini M, Lamartina S, Gallo AD, Fusco A, Kovesdi I, Balestrazzi E, Abeni DC, Ali RR, Capogrossi MC
    J Gene Med, 2004;6(9):992-1002.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Types: N/A
    Applications: ELISA (Standard)
  25. Xenopus neurula left-right asymmetry is respeficied by microinjecting TGF-beta5 protein.
    Authors: Mogi K, Goto M, Ohno E, Azumi Y, Takeuchi S, Toyoizumi R
    Int. J. Dev. Biol., 2003;47(1):15-29.
    Species: Xenopus
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  26. Excess placental soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1) may contribute to endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and proteinuria in preeclampsia.
    Authors: Maynard SE, Min JY, Merchan J, Lim KH, Mondal S, Stillman IE, Epstein FH, Karumanchi SA
    J. Clin. Invest., 2003;111(5):649-58.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay

FAQs

  1. The vial is supposed to contain lyophilized protein but it appears to be empty. Is there anything in it?

    • Pellets can be dislodged during shipping and become disbursed on the vial wall and in the cap. Centrifuge or tap the vial on the benchtop to return this material to the vial bottom. If this does not reveal a pellet, closely inspect the cone of the vial. Some pellets appear as only a tiny amount of material or as a transparent film due to the original buffer formulation. This is a normal appearance for many proteins. For example, if the product is originally lyophilized from a solvent such as acetonitrile or ethanol, and supplied carrier-free, you may not be able to detect the pellet with the naked eye. This does not mean the vial is empty. Reconstitute the vial as directed. After reconstitution, protein concentration can be tested with a spectrophotometer.

  2. What is the recommended method for reconstitution of a lyophilized protein or antibody?

    • Unless more specific directions are on the Certificate of Analysis provided with the product, we suggest the following procedure to ensure optimal recovery: 1. Allow the vial and reconstitution buffer to equilibrate to room temperature. 2. Briefly centrifuge the vial to ensure that all lyophiliate is collected at the bottom of the vial. 3. Add the amount of buffer required to achieve the concentration recommended on the product insert. 4. Allow the vial to reconstitute for 15-30 minutes at room temperature with gentle agitation, like on a rocker platform or rotating by hand.  Avoid vigorous shaking that can cause foaming and protein denaturation. 5. Aliquot into volumes greater than 20 μL and store as indicated on the product insert. If the vial exhibits flakes or particulates, mix the product for a couple of hours at room temperature and then at 4oC overnight. Contact Technical Service if product does not go into solution.  

       

  3. Are R&D Systems recombinant proteins and antibodies sterile?

    • Although the vials are bottled using aseptic techniques, heat-treated vials, and sterile stock solutions, they are not considered or guaranteed to be sterile. If sterile material is needed for an experiment, the material can be filtered through a 0.2 micron filter designed for use with biological fluids.

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