Recombinant Rat VEGF 164 Protein, CF

(19 citations)   
  • Purity
    >95%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
  • Activity
    Measured in a cell proliferation assay using HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Conn, G. et al. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:1323. The ED50 for this effect is 0.75-3.75 ng/mL.
  • Source
    Mouse myeloma cell line, NS0-derived Ala27-Arg190
  • Accession #
  • N-terminal Sequence
    Analysis
    Ala27
  • Structure / Form
    Disulfide-linked homodimer
  • Predicted Molecular Mass
    19.2 kDa (monomer)
  • SDS-PAGE
    25 kDa, reducing conditions
Carrier Free
What does CF mean?
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
What formulation is right for me?
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
564-RV/CF
 
564-RV
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with BSA as a carrier protein.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Data Images
Recombinant Rat VEGF164 (Catalog # 564‑RV/CF) stimulates cell proliferation in HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. The ED50 is 0.75-3.75 ng/mL.
1 μg/lane of Recombinant Rat VEGF164 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing bands at 25 kDa and 54 kDa, respectively.
Background: VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF or VEGF-A), also known as vascular permeability factor (VPF), is a potent mediator of both angiogenesis and vasculogenesis in the fetus and adult (1-3). It is a member of the PDGF family that is characterized by a cysteine-knot structure formed by eight conserved cysteine residues (4). Alternately spliced isoforms of 121, 145, 165, 183, 189, and 206 amino acids (aa) have been identified in humans, with 120, 164 and 188 aa isoforms found in rat and mouse (2, 4). Isoforms other than VEGF120 and VEGF121 contain basic heparin-binding regions and are not freely diffusible (4). Rat VEGF164 shares 97% aa sequence identity with corresponding regions of mouse, 88% with human and bovine, 89% with porcine and canine, and 90% with feline and equine VEGF, respectively. VEGF binds the type I transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases VEGF R1 (also called Flt-1) and VEGF R2 (Flk-1/KDR) on endothelial cells (4). Although affinity is highest for binding to VEGF R1, VEGF R2 appears to be the primary mediator of VEGF angiogenic activity (3, 4). Human VEGF165 binds the semaphorin receptor, neuropilin-1 and promotes complex formation with VEGF R2 (5). VEGF is required during embryogenesis to regulate the proliferation, migration, and survival of endothelial cells (3, 4). In adults, VEGF functions mainly in wound healing and the female reproductive cycle (3). Pathologically, it is involved in tumor angiogenesis and vascular leakage (6, 7). Circulating VEGF levels correlate with disease activity in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus (8). VEGF is induced by hypoxia and cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, oncostatin M and TNF-alpha (3, 4, 9).

  • References:
    1. Conn, G. et al. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 87:2628.
    2. Ishii, H. et al. (2001) Arch. Oral Biol. 46:77.
    3. Byrne, A.M. et al. (2005) J. Cell. Mol. Med. 9:777.
    4. Robinson, C.J. and Stringer, S.E. (2001) J. Cell. Sci. 114:853.
    5. Pan, Q. et al. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282:24049.
    6. Weis, S.M. & D.A. Cheresh (2005) Nature 437:497.
    7. Thurston, G. (2002) J. Anat. 200:575.
    8. Carvalho, J.F. et al. (2007) J. Clin. Immunol. 27:246.
    9. Angelo, L.S. & R. Kurzrock (2007) Clin. Cancer Res. 13:2825.
  • Long Name:
    Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    7422 (Human); 22339 (Mouse); 83785 (Rat); 281572 (Bovine); 403802 (Canine); 493845 (Feline); 30682 (Zebrafish)
  • Alternate Names:
    MVCD1; VAS; vascular endothelial growth factor A; Vascular permeability factor; Vasculotropin; VEGF; VEGFA; VEGF-A; VEGFMGC70609; VPF; VPFvascular endothelial growth factor
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

19 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. Caspase-3 dependent nitrergic neuronal apoptosis following cavernous nerve injury is mediated via RhoA and ROCK activation in major pelvic ganglion
    Sci Rep, 2016;6(0):29416.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: Bioassay
  2. Angiogenic microspheres promote neural regeneration and motor function recovery after spinal cord injury in rats
    Sci Rep, 2016;6(0):33428.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  3. Filarial excretory-secretory products induce human monocytes to produce lymphangiogenic mediators.
    Authors: Weinkopff T, Mackenzie C, Eversole R, Lammie P
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2014;8(7):e2893.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  4. Experimental orthotopic transplantation of a tissue-engineered oesophagus in rats.
    Authors: Sjoqvist S, Jungebluth P, Lim M, Haag J, Gustafsson Y, Lemon G, Baiguera S, Burguillos M, Del Gaudio C, Rodriguez A, Sotnichenko A, Kublickiene K, Ullman H, Kielstein H, Damberg P, Bianco A, Heuchel R, Zhao Y, Ribatti D, Ibarra C, Joseph B, Taylor D, Macchiarini P
    Nat Commun, 2014;5(0):3562.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: Complex Sample Type
    Application: Bioassay
  5. A novel nonradioactive method to evaluate vascular barrier breakdown and leakage.
    Authors: Trichonas G, Manola A, Morizane Y, Thanos A, Koufomichali X, Papakostas TD, Montezuma S, Young L, Miller JW, Gragoudas E, Vavvas D
    Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 2010;51(3):1677-82.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  6. Production of scFv antibody fragments from a hybridoma with functional activity against human vascular endothelial growth factor.
    Authors: Irani Y, Brereton HM, Tilton RG
    Hybridoma (Larchmt), 2009;28(3):205-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    Application: Binding Assay
  7. Effect of local sequential VEGF and BMP-2 delivery on ectopic and orthotopic bone regeneration.
    Authors: Kempen DH, Lu L, Heijink A, Hefferan TE, Creemers LB, Maran A, Yaszemski MJ, Dhert WJ
    Biomaterials, 2009;30(14):2816-25.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  8. Blockade of Wnt signaling inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in hepatocellular carcinoma.
    Authors: Hu J, Dong A, Fernandez-Ruiz V, Shan J, Kawa M, Martinez-Anso E, Prieto J, Qian C
    Cancer Res., 2009;69(17):6951-9.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  9. Characterization of azurocidin as a permeability factor in the retina: involvement in VEGF-induced and early diabetic blood-retinal barrier breakdown.
    Authors: Skondra D, Noda K, Almulki L, Tayyari F, Frimmel S, Nakazawa T, Kim IK, Zandi S, Thomas KL, Miller JW, Gragoudas ES, Hafezi-Moghadam A
    Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 2008;49(2):726-31.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  10. VEGF promotes vascular sympathetic innervation.
    Authors: Marko SB, Damon DH
    Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol., 2008;294(6):H2646-52.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  11. The effect of sustained delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor on angiogenesis in tissue-engineered intestine.
    Authors: Rocha FG, Sundback CA, Krebs NJ, Leach JK, Mooney DJ, Ashley SW, Vacanti JP, Whang EE
    Biomaterials, 2008;29(19):2884-90.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  12. Homogeneous differentiation of hepatocyte-like cells from embryonic stem cells: applications for the treatment of liver failure.
    Authors: Cho CH, Parashurama N, Park EY, Suganuma K, Nahmias Y, Park J, Tilles AW, Berthiaume F, Yarmush ML
    FASEB J., 2007;22(3):898-909.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  13. Effect of VEGF-A on expression of profibrotic growth factor and extracellular matrix genes in the retina.
    Authors: Kuiper EJ, Hughes JM, Van Geest RJ, Vogels IM, Goldschmeding R, Van Noorden CJ, Schlingemann RO, Klaassen I
    Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 2007;48(9):4267-76.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  14. The injury response of oligodendrocyte precursor cells is induced by platelets, macrophages and inflammation-associated cytokines.
    Authors: Rhodes KE, Raivich G, Fawcett JW
    Neuroscience, 2006;140(1):87-100.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  15. Salvage effect of the vascular endothelial growth factor on chemically induced acute severe liver injury in rats.
    Authors: Namisaki T, Yoshiji H, Kojima H, Yoshii J, Ikenaka Y, Noguchi R, Sakurai S, Yanase K, Kitade M, Yamazaki M, Asada K, Uemura M, Nakamura M, Fukui H
    J. Hepatol., 2006;44(3):568-75.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  16. Marked inhibition of retinal neovascularization in rats following soluble-flt-1 gene transfer.
    Authors: Rota R, Riccioni T, Zaccarini M, Lamartina S, Gallo AD, Fusco A, Kovesdi I, Balestrazzi E, Abeni DC, Ali RR, Capogrossi MC
    J Gene Med, 2004;6(9):992-1002.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Type: N/A
    Application: ELISA Standard
  17. Antiangiogenic effect of metronomic paclitaxel treatment in prostate cancer and non-tumor tissue in the same animals: a quantitative study.
    Authors: Lennernas B, Albertsson P, Damber JE, Norrby K
    APMIS, 2004;112(3):201-9.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  18. Xenopus neurula left-right asymmetry is respeficied by microinjecting TGF-beta5 protein.
    Authors: Mogi K, Goto M, Ohno E, Azumi Y, Takeuchi S, Toyoizumi R
    Int. J. Dev. Biol., 2003;47(1):15-29.
    Species: Xenopus
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  19. Excess placental soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1) may contribute to endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and proteinuria in preeclampsia.
    Authors: Maynard SE, Min JY, Merchan J, Lim KH, Mondal S, Stillman IE, Epstein FH, Karumanchi SA
    J. Clin. Invest., 2003;111(5):649-58.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
Expand to show all 19 Citations

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