Interferon Gamma - a pleiotropic cytokine
Although Interferon Gamma (IFN gamma) was first described as an anti-viral factor over 50 years ago, we have come to understand that it is a pleiotropic cytokine that can have beneficial and harmful consequences. In fact, the term “master regulator” is often invoked in reference to IFN gamma as it is central to many cellular and immune processes. For this reason, accurate quantification of this cytokine is crucial in a variety of workflows ranging from basic immunology research to cell therapy manufacturing. Read on to see Bio-Techne’s extensive range of solutions for IFN gamma research and development.
Quantify Interferon Gamma Secretion
In this application note, we describe and validate immunoassays available for accurate measurement of secreted IFN gamma. Whether you are looking for a traditional plate-based ELISA or an automated ELISA platform, both options are available and evaluated for various sample types. You will see the assays are highly concordant, allowing researchers to easily move between platforms. Finally, both assays utilize quality controlled in-house monoclonal antibodies, guaranteeing a long term, consistent supply of both assays.
High Sensitivity Immunoassays for Detecting IFN-Gamma Secretion in Cytokine Release Syndrome
Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS) or Cytokine Storm is an adverse response to immunotherapy. IFN gamma can have an early and prominent role in CRS. Download this application note to see how Bio-Techne’s immunoassays are used to quantify IFN gamma in serum and plasma from healthy donors or patients on cell therapy.
Assays for Quantifying IFN gamma
Quantikine® ELISAs for IFN gamma
R&D Systems® Quantikine® ELISAs are the gold standard immunoassay for quantifying cytokines. These assays are the most cited ELISAs on the market with the most accurate and precise quantification of target analytes. The R&D Systems Human IFN gamma Quantikine® ELISA uses in-house monoclonal capture and detection antibodies, thus guaranteeing consistent results, long-term supply, and large lot sizes. This ready-to-use immunoassay has been extensively tested and will provide superior quality data. Download the application note to see how this assay performs on linearity of dilution and spike and recovery tests. New to Quantikine ELISAs? Find out how to run a Quantikine ELISA!
Simple Plex Assays featuring ELLA for IFN gamma
Simple Plex assays featuring ELLA is the next generation ELISA. This automated immunoassay has few manual steps which greatly reduces user error. The Human IFN gamma assay is completed in 90 minutes, thereby increasing productivity. Simply dilute 25 ul of your sample in 25 ul of the provided diluent and go! What’s more, this assay is extremely sensitive as it has at least 4 logs of dynamic range. This assay is ideal for obtaining consistent data when quantifying IFN gamma across users and geographies. Download the application note to see how this assay correlates with the gold-standard Quantikine ELISA. New to Simple Plex Assays? Watch this video to see how ELLA works!
R&D Systems® Luminex® Assays for IFN gamma
R&D Systems® Luminex® assays are ideal for multiplexing. Are other cytokines secreted with IFN gamma? How can one efficiently quantify the cytokine milieu with a limited sample? R&D Systems Luminex assays allow for the quantification of up to 50 analytes simultaneously in a relatively small sample. Build your own assay or use an off-the-shelf panel. Ready to validate your biomarker candidate? R&D Systems® High Performance Luminex assays are correlated with the gold standard Quantikine ELISA. Use this assay for high sensitivity quantification of IFN gamma secretion. Find out more about R&D Systems Luminex assays by watching this video!
Human Cytokine Performance Panel A
Human High Sensitivity Cytokine Performance Panel A
Human High Sensitivity Cytokine Performance Panel B
Human XL Cytokine Performance Panel
Human Th1/Th2 11-plex Performance Assay Fixed Panel
Human Th9/Th17/Th22 17-plex Performance Assay Fixed Panel
Human Immunotherapy 24-plex Performance Assay Fixed Panel
Human Cytokine 14-plex Performance Assay Fixed Panel
Human XL Cytokine 45-plex Performance Assay Fixed Panel
R&D Systems® ELISpot and FluoroSpot Assays for IFN gamma
Enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assays are a classic assay for quantifying cytokine secreting cells. R&D Systems has many 96 well assays for quantifying IFN gamma secreting cells, alone and in combination with other cytokines. Assays are available in a variety of species, including human, mouse, rat and more. Prefer to do-it-yourself? Try our ELISpot IFN gamma development modules. Learn more about the ELISpot principle!
Single Analyte IFN gamma ELISpot Kits
Dual Color IFN gamma ELISpot Kits
Dual Color IFN gamma FluoroSpot Kits
ELISpot IFN gamma Development Module
DuoSet® ELISA Development Systems for IFN gamma
DuoSet® IFN gamma ELISA development systems are an economical alternative for those that want to do-it-yourself. This assay provides everything that is needed to develop your own IFN gamma sandwich assay. IFN gamma kits are available for 9 species, including human, mouse, and rat. Find out more about DuoSet® ELISAs!
Simple Western IFN gamma Assays
Simple Western assays are automated size or charge based protein electrophoresis assays. These assays are completed in 3 hours, a dramatic time savings compared to manual western blots. Start with just 3 ul of sample and achieve picogram level sensitivity With Jess, you can multiplex, quantify protein using chemiluminescence or fluorescence. Find out more about Simple Western assays!
Tools for IFN gamma Research and Development
What is IFN gamma?
IFN gamma is a pleiotropic cytokine
Interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) is an important immunomodulatory cytokine, affecting both the innate and adaptive immune systems. It was discovered in 1965 as a soluble anti-viral factor and has since been shown to promote host defense against a wide variety of pathogens (1, 2). IFN gamma has been shown to promote autophagy and apoptosis. It has also been shown to have anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic, and anti-tumorigenic properties (1, 3, 4). Additionally, there is recent evidence suggesting that IFN- may also have context-dependent proliferative and pro-tumorigenic effects (3).
Which cells secrete IFN gamma?
IFN gamma is primarily secreted by natural killer (NK) cells (5-7), activated CD8+ T cells (8), Th1 CD4+ T cells (9), NKT cells (10, 11), and macrophages (12-16). IFN gamma is secreted by a number of other cell types including dendritic cells (17), γ δ T cells (18), group 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) (19), keratinocytes (20), neutrophils (21), mast cells (22), and dorsal root ganglion neurons (23).
IFN gamma signaling pathways
IFN gamma signaling is well characterized (1). The biologically active form of IFN gamma is a non-covalently linked homodimer (3), which binds with high affinity to IFN gamma receptor 1 (R1)/CD119 and subsequently recruits IFN gamma R2 to form the functional heterotetrameric receptor complex. Formation of this complex leads to phosphorylation and activation of the Janus kinases (JAK1 and JAK2), which phosphorylate and activate signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). STAT1 homodimerizes and translocates to the nucleus where it binds to IFN gamma-activated sequence (GAS) elements in the promoters of target genes to regulate their transcription. Many of the IFN gamma/STAT1 target genes are transcription factors that then drive the expression of secondary response genes. Additionally, IFN gamma signaling has been shown to activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K), and the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κb) signaling pathways (3), leading to the expression of multiple other genes. IFN gamma signaling plays a key role in host defense by promoting macrophage activation, upregulating the expression of antigen processing and presentation molecules, driving the development and activation of Th1 cells, enhancing natural killer cell activity, regulating B cell functions, and inducing the production of chemokines that promote effector cell trafficking to sites of inflammation (3).
What is IFN gamma’s role in disease?
Due to its immunoregulatory activities, IFN gamma has been used as a therapeutic agent for treating a range of bacterial, fungal, helminth, protozoan, and viral infections, immunodeficiency syndromes, multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), and sepsis (1, 24-33). Additionally, it has been used as an anti-tumor agent to improve patient survival in several types of cancer due to its pro-apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects (3, 34). IFN gamma may also be involved in the progression of cardiac diseases as elevated levels of this cytokine have been detected in the serum of patients with chronic heart failure, as well as in atherosclerotic lesions and in myocardial tissues of patients with Chagas’ cardiomyopathy (1, 35, 36). High levels of IFN gamma have been found in the serum or cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease (37, 38), suggesting that it may also be involved in neurodegenerative disease progression and serve as a clinical biomarker. Finally, T cell secreted IFN gamma has been shown to be important for influenza viral clearance and protection against pathology in animal models (39). This finding is particularly relevant in the context of a potential vaccine development workflow for investigators in the battle against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)- coronavirus (CoV)-2. Taken together, is clear that IFN gamma is a pleiotropic cytokine with complex effects throughout the body. Bio-Techne’s brands are pleased to provide solutions for IFN gamma research and development needs.
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