TNF-alpha (Tumor necrosis factor alpha) plays a central role in inflammation, immune system development, apoptosis, and lipid metabolism. TNF-alpha was first identified as a cytotoxic factor produced by macrophages capable of killing mouse tumor cells. It is the prototypic ligand and along with Lymphotoxin-alpha, were identified as the first members of the TNF superfamily. Active TNF-alpha and other members of the TNF superfamily exist as a homotrimer with high structural homology. Receptor binding occurs at the interface of two TNF-alpha monomers. And receptor activation occurs when all three monomer interfaces are engaged with a receptor. For TNF-alpha, receptor binding and activation occurs through TNF R1 or TNF RII, and subsequently leads to activation of NF-kB or MAPK signaling pathways. Another pathway that TNF-alpha can activate utilizes the death domain of TNF RI to induce apoptosis. TNF-alpha promotes the inflammatory response largely through NF-kB signaling, and inhibition of TNF-alpha has proven successful in treating many autoimmune disorders. TNF-alpha is also present on the cell surface as membrane-bound TNF-alpha can induce the lysis of neighboring tumor cells and virus infected cells. TNF-alpha protein is translated as a type II transmembrane protein containing an N-terminal transmembrane domain. The soluble cytokine is released from its cell-anchoring TM domain by proteolytic processing by metalloproteases.
PRODUCT AVAILABILITY: Update Regarding the Evolving COVID-19 Situation
Bio-Techne appreciates the critical role that you and our products and services play in research efforts to further scientific innovation and discovery. We are continually assessing our manufacturing and supplier capabilities during the COVID-19 situation and are implementing precautionary measures to ensure uninterrupted supply of products and services. Currently, and as we abide by local shelter in place orders across the world, we are fully operational and do not anticipate any material supply disruptions across our Bio-Techne brands and product lines. As the situation evolves, our goal is to utilize preventive measures to reduce the threat that COVID-19 poses to our ability to meet the needs of our customers globally.