Under nonpathological conditions, microglia function to maintain homeostasis of the surrounding nervous tissue. Steady-state, or ramified, microglia possess an extensive arborization of thin processes that repeatedly extend and retract into the surrounding tissue so to monitor the local microenvironment. Upon detection of injury or an invading pathogen, microglia become activated and initiate an immune response resulting in the production of inflammatory molecules, secretion of trophic factors, and phagocytizing cellular debris. Ramified microglia have also been shown to be important for neuronal circuit remodeling. They promote synapse formation and elimination in both the developing and mature brain, and regulate the maturation and plasticity of previously established synaptic connections.
Iba1 in Mouse Spinal Cord.
Ionized Calcium-Binding Adapter Molecule 1 (Iba1), also called AIF-1, was detected in perfusion-fixed sections of mouse spinal cord using a Goat Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat Anti-AIF-1/Iba1 Polyclonal Antibody (Novus Biologicals, Catalog # NB100-1028
). The tissue was stained using an Alexa Fluor®
555-conjugated donkey anti-goat IgG secondary antibody (red).
CD11b in Human Brain.
CD11b, also called Integrin alpha M, was detected in immersion-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of human brain (cerebral cortex) using a Mouse Anti-Human/Equine CD11b/Integrin alpha M Monoclonal Antibody (R&D Systems, Catalog # MAB16991
). The tissue was subjected to antigen retrieval using the Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic (R&D Systems, Catalog # CTS013
) and stained using the NorthernLights™ 557-Conjugated Donkey Anti-Mouse IgG Secondary Antibody (R&D Systems, Catalog # NL007
; red). Nuclei were counterstained with DAPI (blue). Specific staining was localized to the cytoplasm of microglia. The tissue was co-stained using a Sheep Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat Neurogranin Antigen Affinity-Purified Polyclonal Antibody (R&D Systems, Catalog # AF7947
) and an Alexa Fluor®
488-conjugated donkey anti-sheep IgG secondary antibody (green).