Clozapine N-oxide

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
Clozapine N-oxide | CAS No. 34233-69-7 | DREADD Activators
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Description: Activator of muscarinic DREADDs

Chemical Name: 8-Chloro-11-(4-methyl-4-oxido-1-piperazinyl)-5H-dibenzo[b,e][1,4]diazepine

Purity: ≥99%

Product Details
Citations (46)
Supplemental Products
Reviews (8)

Biological Activity

Metabolite of clozapine (Cat. No. 0444). Activates human muscarinic designer receptors (DREADDs) in vitro. Silences hippocampal neurons expressing hM4 DREADDs in vitro. Activates Gs-linked DREADDS- AgRP in mice via intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) injection. Shown to be a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump substrate. Other potent and selective hM3Dq DREADD agonists available: DREADD agonist 21 and Perlapine.

Water soluble salt also available.

This product contains 1 molar equivalent of ethanol.

Technical Data

Soluble to 20 mM in DMSO
Store at RT

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.

Product Datasheets

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Citations for Clozapine N-oxide

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Clozapine N-oxide include:

46 Citations: Showing 1 - 10

  1. Brainstem neurons that command mammalian locomotor asymmetries.
    Authors: Cregg Et al.
    Nat Neurosci  2020;23:730
  2. Sodium regulates clock time and output via an excitatory GABAergic pathway.
    Authors: Gizowski & Bourque Et al.
    Nature  2020;
  3. Somatostatin neurons of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis enhance associative fear memory consolidation in mice.
    Authors: Bruzsik Et al.
    BioRXiv - not yet peer reviewed  2020;
  4. Identification of a novel population of peripheral sensory neuron that regulates blood pressure
    Authors: Morelli Et al.
    BioRXiv - not yet peer reviewed  2020;
  5. In vivo electrophysiological validation of DREADD-based inhibition of pallidal neurons in the non-human primate.
    Authors: Deffains Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci  2020;
  6. Anterior cingulate cortex modulates the affective-motivative dimension of hyperosmolality-induced thirst.
    Authors: Ma Et al.
    J Physiol  2019;597:4851
  7. Prefrontal Theta Oscillations Promote Selective Encoding of Behaviorally Relevant Events.
    Authors: Jarovi Et al.
    Eneuro  2019;5
  8. Galanin Neurons Unite Sleep Homeostasis and α2-Adrenergic Sedation
    Authors: Ma Et al.
    Curr Biol  2019;29:3315
  9. Maladaptive Downregulation of Autonomous Subthalamic Nucleus Activity following the Loss of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons
    Authors: McIver Et al.
    Cell Rep  2019;28:992
  10. Activation of Astrocytic μ-Opioid Receptor Causes Conditioned Place Preference
    Authors: Nam Et al.
    Cell Rep  2019;28:1154
  11. Routing Hippocampal Information Flow through Parvalbumin Interneuron Plasticity in Area CA2.
    Authors: Nasrallah Et al.
    Cell Rep  2019;27:86
  12. Chemogenetic Activation of Adrenocortical Gq Signaling Causes Hyperaldosteronism and Disrupts Functional Zonation.
    Authors: Taylor Et al.
    J Clin Invest  2019;130:83
  13. Cholinergic neural activity directs retinal layer-specific angiogenesis and blood retinal barrier formation.
    Authors: Weiner Et al.
    Nat Commun  2019;10:2477
  14. Adenosine triphosphate is co-secreted with glucagon-like peptide-1 to modulate intestinal enterocytes and afferent neurons.
    Authors: Lu Et al.
    Nat.commun.  2019;10:1029
  15. A hippocampal circuit linking dorsal CA2 to ventral CA1 critical for social memory dynamics.
    Authors: Meira Et al.
    Nat.Commun.  2018;9:4163
  16. The role of calretinin-expressing granule cells in olfactory bulb functions and odor behavior.
    Authors: Hardy Et al.
    Sci Rep  2018;8:9385
  17. Dynamic interaction of local and transhemispheric networks is necessary for progressive intensification of hippocampal seizures.
    Authors: Berglind Et al.
    Sci Rep  2018;8:5669
  18. Cholinergic neurons in medial septum maintain anxiety-like behaviors induced by chronic inflammatory pain.
    Authors: Jiang Et al.
    Neurosci Letts  2018;671:7
  19. A circuit from hippocampal CA2 to lateral septum disinhibits social aggression.
    Authors: Leroy Et al.
    Nature  2018;564:213
  20. Parallel Arousal Pathways in the Lateral Hypothalamus.
    Authors: Heiss Et al.
    Eneuro  2018;5
  21. Kisspeptin neurones in the posterodorsal medial amygdala modulate sexual partner preference and anxiety in male mice.
    Authors: Adekunbi Et al.
    J Neuroendocrinol  2018;30:e12572
  22. Excitatory Pathways from the Lateral Habenula Enable Propofol-Induced Sedation.
    Authors: Gelegen Et al.
    Curr Biol  2018;28:580
  23. A Neuronal Hub Binding Sleep Initiation and Body Cooling in Response to a Warm External Stimulus.
    Authors: Harding Et al.
    Curr Biol  2018;28:2263
  24. Activity-Dependent Netrin-1 Secretion Drives Synaptic Insertion of GluA1-Containing AMPA Receptors in the Hippocampus.
    Authors: Glasgow Et al.
    Cell Rep  2018;25:168
  25. The Basolateral Amygdala Is Essential for Rapid Escape: A Human and Rodent Study.
    Authors: Terburg Et al.
    Cell  2018;175:723
  26. Astrocytic Activation Generates De Novo Neuronal Potentiation and Memory Enhancement.
    Authors: Adamsky Et al.
    Cell  2018;174:59
  27. A Neural Circuit for the Suppression of Pain by a Competing Need State.
    Authors: Alhadeff Et al.
    Cell  2018;173:140
  28. Dissociable Structural and Functional Hippocampal Outputs via Distinct Subiculum Cell Classes.
    Authors: Cembrowski Et al.
    Cell  2018;173:1280
  29. Medial Amygdala Kiss1 Neurons Mediate Female Pheromone Stimulation of Luteinizing Hormone in Male Mice.
    Authors: Aggarwal Et al.
    Neuroendocrinology  2018;108:172
  30. Neural Circuit-Specialized Astrocytes: Transcriptomic, Proteomic, Morphological, and Functional Evidence.
    Authors: Chai Et al.
    Neuron  2017;95:531
  31. A Brainstem-Spinal Cord Inhibitory Circuit for Mechanical Pain Modulation by GABA and Enkephalins.
    Authors: Francois Et al.
    Neuron  2017;93:822
  32. Glutamatergic projections from the entorhinal cortex to dorsal dentate gyrus mediate context-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking.
    Authors: Ge Et al.
    Neuropsychopharmacology  2017;42:1860
  33. Loss of Plasticity in the D2-Accumbens Pallidal Pathway Promotes Cocaine Seeking.
    Authors: Heinsbroek Et al.
    J Neurosci  2017;37:757
  34. A tale of two circuits: CCKNTS neuron stimulation controls appetite and induces opposing motivational states by projections to distinct brain regions.
    Authors: Roman Et al.
    Neuroscience  2017;358:316
  35. Cortico-accumbens regulation of approach-avoidance behavior Is modified by experience and chronic pain.
    Authors: Schwartz Et al.
    Cell Rep  2017;19:1522
  36. Inhibiting medial septal cholinergic neurons with DREADD alleviated anxiety-like behaviors in mice.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
    Neurosci Letts  2017;18:139
  37. Visuomotor coupling shapes the functional development of mouse visual cortex.
    Authors: Attinger
    Cell  2017;169(7):1291
  38. Ethanol-seeking behavior is expressed directly through an extended amygdala to midbrain neural circuit.
    Authors: Pina and Cunningham Et al.
    Neurobiol Learn Mem  2017;137:83
  39. Using c-kit to genetically target cerebellar molecular layer interneurons in adult mice.
    Authors: Amat
    PLoS One  2017;12(6):e0179347
  40. Histamine modulation of the basal ganglia circuitry in the development of pathological grooming.
    Authors: Rapanelli
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.  2017;114(25):6599
  41. Appetite controlled by a cholecystokinin nucleus of the solitary tract to hypothalamus neurocircuit.
    Authors: D'Agostino Et al.
    PLoS Biol  2016;5
  42. Attenuation of β-Amyloid Deposition and Neurotoxicity by Chemogenetic Modulation of Neural Activity.
    Authors: Yuan and Grutzendler
    J Neurosci  2016;36:632
  43. Neural activity promotes long-distance, target-specific regeneration of adult retinal axons.
    Authors: Lim Et al.
    Nat Neurosci  2016;19:1073
  44. Warm-Sensitive Neurons that Control Body Temperature.
    Authors: Tan Et al.
    Cell  2016;167:47
  45. Ethanol-seeking behavior is expressed directly through an extended amygdala to midbrain neural circuit.
    Authors: Pina and Cunningham
    Neurobiol Learn Mem  2016;137:83
  46. DREADDS: Use and application in behavioral neuroscience.
    Authors: Smith Et al.
    Behav Neurosci  2016;130:137


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Reviews for Clozapine N-oxide

Average Rating: 4.6 (Based on 8 Reviews)

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Good product
By Anonymous on 06/15/2020
Application: Species: Mouse

1 mg/kg

PMID: 31340159 Reference

Highly soluble and stable
By Anonymous on 01/04/2018
Application: Species: Mouse

Soluble in 0.9% saline. Perfused in brain slice experiment with patch clamp study.

CNO in DREADD pain targeted Mice
By Anonymous on 12/15/2017
Application: Species: Mouse

CNO was used in pair with DREADD mice for a pain related experiment to determine whether inhibiting PBN neurons will attenuate pain reponses. Publication under second revision for Cell.

Product provides publishable work, no issues arose when dealing with the substance.

CNO in concert with DREADDs
By Anonymous on 12/01/2017
Application: Species: Rat

I injected clozapine N-oxide in rats (IP, 1 mg/ml/kg). The rats had previously underwent stereotaxic surgery in which a virus carrying a gene for a Gi DREADD was infused unilaterally into the dorsal striatum.

CNO for chronic DREADD activation
By Anonymous on 12/01/2017
Application: Species: Mouse

In vivo chemogenetic experiments - CNO was added to the drinking water. While there are issues with the back conversion of CNO to clozapine, this is not the manufacturer's problem. CNO experiments still generate important data as long as they utilize proper controls

Added saccharine to counteract bitter taste of DMSO used to dissolve CNO

Does what it is meant to!
By Anonymous on 10/20/2017
Application: Species: Rat

We use it as both injectable pass the blood brain barrier ICV, and IP injections. We are looking at both behavioral concern and brain regional efficacy in regard to DREADD. So far, this product has been selectively turning on/off our target cells.

tail bleed
By Anonymous on 09/07/2017
Application: Species: Mouse

bleed assay

neuron silencer
By Anonymous on 07/17/2017
Application: Species: Mouse

neuron silencer

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