|Detection of 4‑1BB/TNFRSF9/CD137 in Human PBMCs by Flow Cytometry. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) treated with PHA for 5 hours were stained with Mouse Anti-Human CD3 epsilon APC‑conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB100A) and either (A) Mouse Anti-Human 4‑1BB/TNFRSF9/CD137 PE‑conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB838P) or (B) Mouse IgG2B Phycoerythrin Isotype Control (Catalog # IC0041P). View our protocol for Staining Membrane-associated Proteins.|
4-1BB is an inducible T cell surface protein belonging to the TNF receptor superfamily. It is alternatively known as TNFRSF9, CD137, and ILA. The 255 amino acid human 4-1BB is a type I transmembrane protein having in its extracellular domain four of the cysteine-rich motifs that are characteristic of the TNF receptor superfamily. The 30 KD glycoprotein exists both as a monomer and as a dimer on T cells. The human and mouse proteins share 60% amino acid sequence identity. 4-1BB is absent from naive T cells, but it is upregulated and continually expressed following T cell activation. The natural ligand, 4-1BBL, is a member of the TNF superfamily and is expressed on activated antigen presenting cells including dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells. Cross-linking of 4-1BB by 4-1BBL or by agonistic antibodies transmits a potent co-stimulatory signal that enhances the effect of other activating signals such as PHA or anti-CD3 antibodies. 4-1BB signals through the TFAF2‑NIK pathway resulting in activation of NF-kappa B and ultimately promoting proliferation and survival of T cells.
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