Human CX3CL1/Fractalkine Chemokine Domain Antibody

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Chemotaxis Induced by CX3CL1/Fractalkine and Neutralization by Human CX3CL1/Fractalkine Antibody.
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Citations (31)
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Human CX3CL1/Fractalkine Chemokine Domain Antibody Summary

Species Reactivity
Detects human CX3CL1/Fractalkine in direct ELISAs and Western blots. In direct ELISAs, less than 10% cross-reactivity with recombinant human (rh) MCP‑2 and rhMCP-4 is observed.
Polyclonal Goat IgG
Antigen Affinity-purified
E. coli-derived recombinant human CX3CL1/Fractalkine
Accession # Q6I9S9
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied either lyophilized or as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the antibody by the LAL method.


Recommended Concentration
Western Blot
0.1 µg/mL
Recombinant Human CX3CL1/Fractalkine Chemokine Domain (Catalog # 362-CX)
Measured by its ability to neutralize CX3CL1/Fractalkine-induced chemotaxis in the BaF3 mouse pro‑B cell line transfected with mouse CX3CR1. The Neutralization Dose (ND50) is typically 0.75-4.5 µg/mL in the presence of 100 ng/mL Recombinant Human CX3CL1/Fractalkine.

Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.

Scientific Data

Neutralization Chemotaxis Induced by CX3CL1/Fractalkine and Neutralization by Human CX3CL1/Fractalkine Antibody. View Larger

Chemotaxis Induced by CX3CL1/Fractalkine and Neutralization by Human CX3CL1/Fractalkine Antibody. Recombinant Human CX3CL1/Fractalkine (Catalog # 365-FR) chemoattracts the BaF3 mouse pro-B cell line transfected with mouse CX3CR1 in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). The amount of cells that migrated through to the lower chemotaxis chamber was measured by Resazurin (Catalog # AR002). Chemotaxis elicited by Recombinant Human CX3CL1/Fractalkine (100 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Human CX3CL1/Fractalkine Chemokine Domain Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF365). The ND50 is typically 0.75-4.5 µg/mL.

Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

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Preparation and Storage

Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Background: CX3CL1/Fractalkine

CX3CL1, also named neurotactin, is a novel chemokine identified through bioinformatics. CX3CL1 has a unique C-X3-C cysteine motif near the amino-terminus and is the first member of a fourth branch of the chemokine superfamily. Unlike other known chemokines, CX3CL1 is a type 1 membrane protein containing a chemokine domain tethered on a long mucin-like stalk. Human CX3CL1 cDNA encodes a 397 amino acid (aa) residue membrane protein with a 24 aa residue predicted signal peptide, a 76 aa residue chemokine domain, a 241 aa residue stalk region containing 17 degenerate mucin-like repeats, a 19 aa residue transmembrane segment and a 37 aa residue cytoplasmic domain. The extracellular domain of human CX3CL1 can be released, possibly by proteolysis at the dibasic cleavage site proximal to the membrane, to generate soluble CX3CL1. CX3CL1 mRNA has been detected in various tissues including the brain and heart. The expression of CX3CL1 was also reported to be up-regulated in endothelial cells and microglia by inflammatory signals. Membrane-bound CX3CL1 has been shown to promote adhesion of leukocytes. The soluble chemokine domain of human CX3CL1 was reported to be chemotactic for T cells and monocytes while the soluble chemokine domain of mouse CX3CL1 was reported to chemoattract neutrophils and T-lymphocytes but not monocytes. The gene for human CX3CL1 has been mapped to chromosome 16q.

  1. Pan, Y. et al. (1997) Nature 387:611.
  2. Bazan, J.F. et al. (1997) Nature 385:640.
  3. Mackay, C.R. (1997) Current Biology 7:R384.
Entrez Gene IDs
6376 (Human); 20312 (Mouse); 89808 (Rat); 102117496 (Cynomolgus Monkey)
Alternate Names
ABCD-3; C3Xkine; chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1; CX3C membrane-anchored chemokine; CX3CL1; CXC3; CXC3C; FKN; Fractalkine; Neurotactin; neurotactin); NTNsmall inducible cytokine subfamily D (Cys-X3-Cys), member 1 (fractalkine; NTTSmall-inducible cytokine D1; SCYD1C-X3-C motif chemokine 1; small inducible cytokine subfamily D (Cys-X3-Cys), member-1

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Citations for Human CX3CL1/Fractalkine Chemokine Domain Antibody

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

31 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Enrichment of Newly Synthesized Proteins following treatment of C2C12 Myotubes with Endotoxin and Interferon-gamma
    Authors: Catherine S. Coleman, Bruce A. Stanley, Charles H. Lang
  2. Diet-Induced Obesity Promotes Liver Metastasis of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma via CX3CL1/CX3CR1 Axis
    Authors: Y Sun, XX Zhang, S Huang, H Pan, YZ Gai, YQ Zhou, L Zhu, HZ Nie, DX Li
    Journal of Immunology Research, 2022-04-18;2022(0):5665964.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  3. Jinfukang inhibits lung cancer metastasis by upregulating CX3CL1 to recruit NK cells to kill CTCs
    Authors: ZJ Que, JL Yao, ZY Zhou, P Yu, B Luo, HG Li, JX Liu, HX Xu, JH Tian
    Journal of ethnopharmacology, 2021-04-30;275(0):114175.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
    Applications: Western Blot
  4. A digital single-molecule nanopillar SERS platform for predicting and monitoring immune toxicities in immunotherapy
    Authors: J Li, A Wuethrich, AAI Sina, HH Cheng, Y Wang, A Behren, PN Mainwaring, M Trau
    Nature Communications, 2021-02-17;12(1):1087.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
    Applications: ELISA Capture
  5. CX3CL1 and IL-15 Promote CD8 T cell chemoattraction in HIV and in atherosclerosis
    Authors: S Panigrahi, B Chen, M Fang, D Potashniko, AA Komissarov, A Lebedeva, GM Michaelson, JM Wyrick, SR Morris, SF Sieg, M Paiardini, FJ Villinger, K Harth, VS Kashyap, MJ Cameron, CM Cameron, E Vasilieva, L Margolis, SA Younes, NT Funderburg, DA Zidar, MM Lederman, ML Freeman
    PLoS Pathog, 2020-09-25;16(9):e1008885.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: ICC
  6. CX3CL1 homo-oligomerization drives cell-to-cell adherence
    Authors: MA Ostuni, P Hermand, E Saindoy, N Guillou, J Guellec, A Coens, C Hattab, E Desuzinges, A Jawhari, S Iatmanen-H, O Lequin, P Fuchs, JJ Lacapere, C Combadière, F Pincet, P Deterre
    Sci Rep, 2020-06-03;10(1):9069.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
    Applications: Western Blot
  7. Interplay of Plasmodium falciparum and thrombin in brain endothelial barrier disruption
    Authors: M Avril, M Benjamin, MM Dols, JD Smith
    Sci Rep, 2019-09-11;9(1):13142.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry
  8. Impact of heat therapy on recovery after eccentric exercise in humans
    Authors: Kyoungrae Kim, Shihuan Kuang, Qifan Song, Timothy P. Gavin, Bruno T. Roseguini
    Journal of Applied Physiology
  9. Placental CX3CL1 is Deregulated by Angiotensin II and Contributes to a Pro-Inflammatory Trophoblast-Monocyte Interaction
    Authors: O Nonn, J Güttler, D Forstner, S Maninger, J Zadora, A Balogh, A Frolova, A Glasner, F Herse, M Gauster
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019-02-02;20(3):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates, Whole Cells
    Applications: ICC, Western Blot
  10. The Fractalkine-Receptor Axis Improves Human Colorectal Cancer Prognosis by Limiting Tumor Metastatic Dissemination.
    Authors: Erreni M, Siddiqui I, Marelli G, Grizzi F, Bianchi P, Morone D, Marchesi F, Celesti G, Pesce S, Doni A, Rumio C, Roncalli M, Laghi L, Mantovani A, Allavena P
    J Immunol, 2015-12-16;196(2):902-14.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P
  11. Fractalkine-CX3CR1-dependent recruitment and retention of human CD1c+ myeloid dendritic cells by in vitro-activated proximal tubular epithelial cells.
    Authors: Kassianos A, Wang X, Sampangi S, Afrin S, Wilkinson R, Healy H
    Kidney Int, 2015-01-14;87(6):1153-63.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-Fr
  12. CX3CL1, a chemokine finely tuned to adhesion: critical roles of the stalk glycosylation and the membrane domain
    Authors: Mariano A. Ostuni, Julie Guellec, Patricia Hermand, Pauline Durand, Christophe Combadière, Frédéric Pincet et al.
    Biology Open
  13. Involvement of the CX3CL1 (fractalkine)/CX3CR1 pathway in the pathogenesis of acute graft-versus-host disease.
    Authors: Brissot E, Bossard C, Malard F, Braudeau C, Chevallier P, Guillaume T, Delaunay J, Josien R, Gregoire M, Gaugler B, Mohty M
    J Leukoc Biol, 2014-11-24;97(2):227-35.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P
  14. Fractalkine receptor is expressed in mature ovarian teratomas and required for epidermal lineage differentiation
    Authors: Lisa Rooper, Hilal Gurler, Andre A Kajdacsy-Balla, Maria V Barbolina
    Journal of Ovarian Research
  15. Early expression of the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 in pancreatic carcinogenesis
    Authors: G Celesti, G Di Caro, P Bianchi, F Grizzi, F Marchesi, G Basso et al.
    British Journal of Cancer
  16. Crosstalk between monocytes and renal mesangial cells via interaction of metalloproteinases and fractalkine in diabetic nephropathy.
    Authors: Wang Y, Wei Q, Liu Q, Li Z, Zhou L, Zou F, Yuan Y, Sun Z
    Mol Med Rep, 2013-09-25;8(6):1817-23.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
    Applications: Western Blot
  17. CX3CL1 Promotes Breast Cancer via Transactivation of the EGF Pathway
    Authors: Manuel Tardáguila, Emilia Mira, Miguel A. García-Cabezas, Anna M. Feijoo, Miguel Quintela-Fandino, Iñigo Azcoitia et al.
    Cancer Research
  18. DC8 and DC13 var Genes Associated with Severe Malaria Bind Avidly to Diverse Endothelial Cells
    Authors: Marion Avril, Andrew J. Brazier, Martin Melcher, Sowmya Sampath, Joseph D. Smith
    PLoS Pathogens
  19. Expression and regulation of chemokines in murine and human type 1 diabetes.
    Authors: Sarkar SA, Lee CE, Victorino F, Nguyen TT, Walters JA, Burrack A, Eberlein J, Hildemann SK, Homann D
    Diabetes, 2011-12-30;61(2):436-46.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry
  20. Fractalkine is a novel human adipochemokine associated with type 2 diabetes.
    Authors: Shah R, Hinkle CC, Ferguson JF, Mehta NN, Li M, Qu L, Lu Y, Putt ME, Ahima RS, Reilly MP
    Diabetes, 2011-05-01;60(5):1512-8.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Neutralization
  21. Thromboxane prostanoid receptor stimulation induces shedding of the transmembrane chemokine CX3CL1 yet enhances CX3CL1-dependent leukocyte adhesion.
    Authors: Tole S, Durkan AM, Huang YW, Liu GY, Leung A, Jones LL, Taylor JA, Robinson LA
    Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol., 2010-03-17;298(6):C1469-80.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates, Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry, ICC, Western Blot
  22. Constitutive endocytosis of the chemokine CX3CL1 prevents its degradation by cell surface metalloproteases.
    Authors: Huang YW, Su P, Liu GY, Crow MR, Chaukos D, Yan H, Robinson LA
    J. Biol. Chem., 2009-09-01;284(43):29644-53.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: ICC
  23. An engineered CX3CR1 antagonist endowed with anti-inflammatory activity.
    Authors: Dorgham K, Ghadiri A, Hermand P, Rodero M, Poupel L, Iga M, Hartley O, Gorochov G, Combadiere C, Deterre P
    J. Leukoc. Biol., 2009-07-01;86(4):903-11.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Virus
    Applications: ELISA Development
  24. Fractalkine and CX3CR1 mediate leukocyte capture by endothelium in response to Shiga toxin.
    Authors: Zanchi C, Zoja C, Morigi M, Valsecchi F, Liu XY, Rottoli D, Locatelli M, Buelli S, Pezzotta A, Mapelli P, Geelen J, Remuzzi G, Hawiger J
    J. Immunol., 2008-07-15;181(2):1460-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates, Whole Cells
    Applications: Neutralization, Western Blot
  25. CX3CR1 is expressed by prostate epithelial cells and androgens regulate the levels of CX3CL1/fractalkine in the bone marrow: potential role in prostate cancer bone tropism.
    Authors: Jamieson WL, Shimizu S, D'Ambrosio JA, Meucci O, Fatatis A
    Cancer Res., 2008-03-15;68(6):1715-22.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P
  26. Fractalkine, a CX3C chemokine, as a mediator of ocular angiogenesis.
    Authors: You JJ, Yang CH, Huang JS, Chen MS, Yang CM
    Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 2007-11-01;48(11):5290-8.
    Species: Bovine, Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Neutralization
  27. Down-regulation of surface fractalkine by RNA interference in B16 melanoma reduced tumor growth in mice.
    Authors: Ren T, Chen Q, Tian Z, Wei H
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2007-10-29;364(4):978-84.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P
  28. Human cytomegalovirus-specific CD4+-T-cell cytokine response induces fractalkine in endothelial cells.
    Authors: Bolovan-Fritts CA, Trout RN, Spector SA
    J. Virol., 2004-12-01;78(23):13173-81.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
    Applications: Western Blot
  29. Immunohistochemical assessment of fractalkine, inflammatory cells, and human herpesvirus 7 in human salivary glands.
    Authors: Latchney LR, Fallon MA, Culp DJ, Gelbard HA, Dewhurst S
    J. Histochem. Cytochem., 2004-05-01;52(5):671-81.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P
  30. Detection of fractalkine in human seminal plasma and its role in infertile patients.
    Authors: Zhang Q, Shimoya K, Ohta Y, Chin R, Tenma K, Isaka S, Nakamura H, Koyama M, Azuma C, Murata Y
    Hum. Reprod., 2002-06-01;17(6):1560-4.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Seminal Plasma
    Applications: Western Blot
  31. The transmembrane form of the CX3CL1 chemokine fractalkine is expressed predominantly by epithelial cells in vivo.
    Authors: Lucas AD, Chadwick N, Warren BF, Jewell DP, Gordon S, Powrie F, Greaves DR
    Am. J. Pathol., 2001-03-01;158(3):855-66.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates, Whole Cells, Whole Tissue
    Applications: ICC, IHC, Western Blot


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Human CX3CL1/Fractalkine Chemokine Domain Antibody
By Anonymous on 09/13/2023
Application: IHC Sample Tested: Pancreas tissue Species: Human

FFPE antigen retrieval in pH 9 buffer
primary antibody x100 for 1h
biotinylated rabbit anti-goat and streptavidin-HRP