|Chemotaxis Induced by CX3CL1/Fractalkine and Neutralization by Human CX3CL1/Fractalkine Antibody. Recombinant Human CX3CL1/Fractalkine (Catalog # 365-FR) chemoattracts the BaF3 mouse pro‑B cell line transfected with human CX3CR1 in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). The amount of cells that migrated through to the lower chemotaxis chamber was measured by Resazurin (Catalog # AR002). Chemotaxis elicited by Recombinant Human CX3CL1/Fractalkine (100 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Human CX3CL1/Fractalkine Chemokine Domain Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF365). The ND50 is typically 0.3-1.5 µg/mL.|
|CX3CL1/Fractalkine in Human Breast Cancer Tissue. CX3CL1/Fractalkine was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human breast cancer tissue using 15 µg/mL Goat Anti-Human CX3CL1/Fractalkine Chemokine Domain Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF365) overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained (red) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.|
CX3CL1, also named neurotactin, is a novel chemokine identified through bioinformatics. CX3CL1 has a unique C-X3-C cysteine motif near the amino-terminus and is the first member of a fourth branch of the chemokine superfamily. Unlike other known chemokines, CX3CL1 is a type 1 membrane protein containing a chemokine domain tethered on a long mucin-like stalk. Human CX3CL1 cDNA encodes a 397 amino acid (aa) residue membrane protein with a 24 aa residue predicted signal peptide, a 76 aa residue chemokine domain, a 241 aa residue stalk region containing 17 degenerate mucin-like repeats, a 19 aa residue transmembrane segment and a 37 aa residue cytoplasmic domain. The extracellular domain of human CX3CL1 can be released, possibly by proteolysis at the dibasic cleavage site proximal to the membrane, to generate soluble CX3CL1. CX3CL1 mRNA has been detected in various tissues including the brain and heart. The expression of CX3CL1 was also reported to be up-regulated in endothelial cells and microglia by inflammatory signals. Membrane-bound CX3CL1 has been shown to promote adhesion of leukocytes. The soluble chemokine domain of human CX3CL1 was reported to be chemotactic for T cells and monocytes while the soluble chemokine domain of mouse CX3CL1 was reported to chemoattract neutrophils and T-lymphocytes but not monocytes. The gene for human CX3CL1 has been mapped to chromosome 16q.
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