Human Dkk-3 Biotinylated Antibody

(1 citations)   
  • Species Reactivity
    Human
  • Specificity
    Detects human Dkk‑3 in ELISAs and Western blots. In sandwich immunoassays, less than 0.1% cross-reactivity with recombinant mouse (rm) Dkk-1, rmDkk-3, rmDkk-4, recombinant human (rh) Dkk-1, and rhDkk-4 is observed.
  • Source
    Polyclonal Goat IgG
  • Purification
    Antigen Affinity-purified
  • Immunogen
    Mouse myeloma cell line NS0-derived recombinant human Dkk-3
    Ala22-Ile350
    Accession # Q9UBP4
  • Formulation
    Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS and NaCl with BSA as a carrier protein.
  • Label
    Biotin
Applications
  •  
    Recommended
    Concentration
    Sample
  • Western Blot
    0.1 µg/mL
    Recombinant Human Dkk‑3 (Catalog # 1118-DK)
  • Immunohistochemistry
    5-15 µg/mL
    See below
    • Human Dkk-3 Sandwich Immunoassay
      Reagent
  • ELISA Capture (Matched Antibody Pair)
    2-8 µg/mL 
    Human Dkk‑3 Antibody (Catalog # MAB11181)
  • ELISA Detection (Matched Antibody Pair)
    0.1-0.4 µg/mL 
    Human Dkk‑3 Biotinylated Antibody (Catalog # BAF1118)
  • ELISA Standard
     
    Recombinant Human Dkk-3 Protein, CF (Catalog # 1118-DK)
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Data Examples
Immunohistochemistry
Dkk‑3 in Human Lung. Dkk‑3 was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human lung using Goat Anti-Human Dkk‑3 Biotinylated Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # BAF1118) at 15 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained using the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.
Immunohistochemistry
Dkk‑3 in Human Lung. Dkk‑3 was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human lung array using Goat Anti-Human Dkk‑3 Biotinylated Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # BAF1118) at 15 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained using the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Lower panel shows a lack of labeling if primary antibodies are omitted and tissue is stained only with secondary antibody followed by incubation with detection reagents. View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.
Preparation and Storage
  • Reconstitution
    Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
  • Shipping
    The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
  • Stability & Storage
    Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
    • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
    • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: Dkk-3

Dkk-3, also known as REIC (Reduced Expansion in Immortalized Cells), is one of four numbered members of the Dickkopf family of Wnt antagonists (1). Dkk-3 is a secreted monomer expressed in many normal human tissues, most strongly in heart, brain and spinal cord (1, 2), and during early embryonic development in the mouse (3). N-glycosylation at up to four sites preceding or between two conserved cysteine-rich motifs results in expression of a 45-65 kDa glycoprotein (1, 4). The cysteine-rich motifs contain 10 cysteines each, with prokineticin and colipase families containing sequences similar to those of the second motif (1, 5). Human Dkk-3 shows 82%, 88%, 85%, and 53% amino acid (aa) identity with mouse, bovine, canine, and chick Dkk-3, respectively, and 37-45% aa identity with other human Dkk family members. Several lines of evidence implicate Dkk-3 as a negative growth regulator. Dkk-3 is downregulated in many tumors as compared to normal cells, sometimes by loss of heterozygosity (4, 6). Downregulation by CpG hypermethylation in acute lymphoblastic leukemia is correlated with faster progression and shorter survival (7). Release of cultured cells from serum starvation results in downregulation of Dkk-3 in late G1 phase of the cell cycle (6). Over-expression of Dkk‑3 results in tumor cell-line-specific growth inhibition, induction of apoptosis, and decreased tumorigenicity in nude mice (2, 4, 6). The prototype Dickkopf member, Dkk-1, antagonizes Wnt family signaling by binding to Wnt receptors LRP5 and LRP6 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins) and promoting their internalization (1, 9, 10). Results are less straightforward for Dkk-3, where some studies show binding to LRP5/6 while others do not. These effects appear to be dependent on the cells and conditions used (1, 6-10).

  • References:
    1. Krupnik, V.E. et al. (1999) Gene 238:301.
    2. Tsuji, T. et al. (2000) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 268:20.
    3. Kemp, C. et al. (2005) Dev. Dyn. 233:1064.
    4. Hsieh, S.-Y. et al. (2004) Oncogene 23:9183.
    5. Bullock, C.M. et al. (2004) Mol. Pharmacol. 65:582.
    6. Tsuji, T. et al. (2001) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 289:257.
    7. Roman-Gomez, J. et al. (2004) Br. J. Cancer 91:707.
    8. Hoang, B.H. et al. (2004) Cancer Res. 64:2734.
    9. Caricasole, A. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278:37024.
    10. Mao, B. et al. (2001) Nature 411:321.
  • Long Name:
    Dickkopf-3
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    27122 (Human); 50781 (Mouse)
  • Alternate Names:
    dickkopf (Xenopus laevis) homolog 3; dickkopf 3; dickkopf homolog 3 (Xenopus laevis); Dickkopf-3; dickkopf-related protein 3; Dkk3; Dkk-3; hDkk-3; regulated in glioma; REIC; REICdkk-3; RIG; RIG-like 5-6; RIG-like 7-1
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

1 Citations: Showing 1 - 1

  1. Dkk-3 is elevated in CSF and plasma of Alzheimer's disease patients.
    Authors: Zenzmaier C, Marksteiner J, Kiefer A, Berger P, Humpel C
    J. Neurochem., 2009;110(2):653-61.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: CSF
    Application: ELISA Development
Immunohistochemistry Reagents
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Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Universal

CTS015 10
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Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic

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Mounting Medium

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Antigen Retrieval Reagent Sampler (50 mL each)

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Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Acidic

CTS014
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NorthernLights Guard Mounting Media

NL996
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VisUCyte Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Universal

VCTS023
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VisUCyte Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic

VCTS021
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VisUCyte Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Acidic

VCTS022
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Isotype Controls
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Normal Goat IgG Biotinylated Control

Ctrl BAF108 19
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Staining Reagents
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Streptavidin-Phycoerythrin

Flow F0040 7
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Streptavidin-Alkaline Phosphatase

ELISA(Det) AR001 2
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NorthernLights Streptavidin NL557

Flow, IHC, ICC NL999 4
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NorthernLights Streptavidin NL637

Flow, IHC, ICC NL998 2
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NorthernLights Streptavidin NL493

Flow, IHC, ICC NL997 1
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Streptavidin-Allophycocyanin

Flow F0050 1
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Avidin-Fluorescein

Flow F0030 1
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Supplemental Cell Selection Products
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MagCellect Streptavidin Ferrofluid

MAG999B 4
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MagCellect Streptavidin Ferrofluid

MAG999 4
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Supplemental ELISA Products
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Streptavidin-HRP

ELISA DY998 44
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EvenCoat Streptavidin Coated Plates

ELISA CP004
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EvenCoat Streptavidin Coated Plates, 5 Pack

ELISA CP003 3
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