Human TGF-beta 2 Quantikine ELISA Kit

(28 citations)   
  • Assay Type
    Solid Phase Sandwich ELISA
  • Format
    96-well strip plate
  • Assay Length
    4.5 hours
  • Sample Type & Volume Required Per Well
    Cell Culture Supernates (125 uL), Serum (125 uL), EDTA Plasma (125 uL), Heparin Plasma (125 uL), Citrate Plasma (125 uL)
  • Sensitivity
    7 pg/mL
  • Assay Range
    31.2 - 2,000 pg/mL (Cell Culture Supernates, Serum, EDTA Plasma, Heparin Plasma, Citrate Plasma)
  • Specificity
    Natural and recombinant human TGF-beta 2 and natural porcine TGF-beta 2.
  • Cross-reactivity
    < 0.5% cross-reactivity observed with available related molecules.< 50% cross-species reactivity observed with species tested.
  • Interference
    Interference observed with 1 or more available related molecules.
Control Available
QC20, Quantikine Immunoassay Control Group 3 - Please Inquire
Ancillary Reagent Kit Available
DY010, Sample Activation Kit 1 - Please Inquire
Product Summary
The Quantikine Human TGF-beta 2 Immunoassay is a 4.5 hour solid-phase ELISA designed to measure activated TGF-beta 2 in cell culture supernates, serum, and plasma. The Quantikine Human TGF-beta 2 Immunoassay contains CHO cell-derived recombinant human TGF-beta 2 and antibodies raised against the recombinant protein. The assay has been shown to quantitate the recombinant factor accurately. Results obtained using human TGF-beta 2 showed linear curves that were parallel to the standard curves obtained using the recombinant TGF-beta 2 kit standards. These results indicate that this kit can be used to determine relative mass values for natural human TGF-beta 2.

Intra-Assay Precision (Precision within an assay) Three samples of known concentration were tested on one plate to assess intra-assay precision.
Inter-Assay Precision (Precision between assays) Three samples of known concentration were tested in separate assays to assess inter-assay precision.
Cell Culture Supernates, Serum, EDTA Plasma, Heparin Plasma, Citrate Plasma
Intra-Assay Precision Inter-Assay Precision
Standard Deviation13.82728.39.821.543.6


To assess recovery of the assay, samples of various matrices were spiked with three concentrations of TGF-beta 2, activated, and measured in the assay.

Sample Type Average % Recovery Range %
Cell Culture Media (n=5) 101 89-113
Citrate Plasma (n=5) 107 93-116
EDTA Plasma (n=5) 101 95-111
Heparin Plasma (n=5) 102 89-113
Serum (n=5) 86 73-95
To assess the linearity of the assay, samples were spiked with high concentrations of TGF-beta 2, activated and then serially diluted with Calibrator Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
Human TGF-beta 2 Quantikine ELISA Kit
Preparation and Storage
  • Storage
    Store the unopened product at 2 - 8 °C. Do not use past expiration date.
Background: TGF-beta 2

Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1, 2, and 3 (TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2, and TGF-beta 3) are highly pleiotropic cytokines that virtually all cell types secrete. TGF-beta molecules are proposed to act as cellular switches that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Targeted deletions of these genes in mice show that each TGF-beta isoform has some non-redundant functions: TGF-beta 1 is involved in hematopoiesis and endothelial differentiation; TGF-beta 2 affects development of cardiac, lung, craniofacial, limb, eye, ear, and urogenital systems; and TGF-beta 3 influences palatogenesis and pulmonary development. The full range of in vitro biological activities of TGF-beta 5 has not yet been explored. However, TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2, TGF-beta 3, and TGF-beta 5 have been found to be largely interchangeable in an inhibitory bioassay, and it is anticipated that TGF-beta 5 will show a spectrum of activities similar to the other TGF-beta family members. To date, the production of TGF-beta 5 has only been demonstrated in Xenopus.

TGF-beta ligands are initially synthesized as precursor proteins that undergo proteolytic cleavage. The mature segments form active ligand dimers via a disulfide-rich core consisting of the characteristic 'cysteine knot'. TGF-beta signaling begins with binding to a complex of the accessory receptor betaglycan (also known as TGF-beta RIII) and a type II serine/threonine kinase receptor termed TGF-beta RII. This receptor then phosphorylates and activates a type I serine/threonine kinase receptor, either ALK-1 or TGF-beta RI (also called ALK-5). The activated type I receptor phosphorylates and activates Smad proteins that regulate transcription. Use of other signaling pathways that are Smad-independent allows for distinct actions observed in response to TGF-beta in different contexts.

    • Long Name
      Transforming Growth Factor beta 2
    • Entrez Gene IDs
      7042 (Human); 21808 (Mouse); 397084 (Porcine);
    • Alternate Names
      BSC-1 cell growth inhibitor; cetermin; Glioblastoma-derived T-cell suppressor factor; G-TSF; MGC116892; polyergin; TGFB2; TGFbeta 2; TGF-beta2; TGF-beta-2; transforming growth factor beta-2; transforming growth factor, beta 2;
    Related Research Areas
    Assay Procedure
    Refer to the product for complete assay procedure.

    Bring all reagents and samples to room temperature before use. It is recommended that all samples, standards, and controls be assayed in duplicate.
    1.   Prepare all reagents, standard dilutions, and samples as directed in the product insert.
    2.   Remove excess microplate strips from the plate frame, return them to the foil pouch containing the desiccant pack, and reseal.

    3. 100 µL Assay Diluent
    4.   Add 100 µL of the appropriate Assay Diluent to each well.

    5. 100 µL Standard, Control, or Activated Sample
    6.   Add 100 µL of Standard, control, or activated sample to each well. Cover with a plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 2 hours.
    7.   Aspirate each well and wash, repeating the process twice for a total of 3 washes.

    8. 200 µL Conjugate
    9.   Add 200 µL of Conjugate to each well. Cover with a new plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 2 hours.
    10.   Aspirate and wash 3 times.

    11. 200 µL Substrate Solution
    12.   Add 200 µL Substrate Solution to each well. Incubate at room temperature for 20 minutes. PROTECT FROM LIGHT.

    13. 50 µL Stop Solution
    14.   Add 50 µL of Stop Solution to each well. Read at 450 nm within 30 minutes. Set wavelength correction to 540 nm or 570 nm.

    R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

    Showing Results 1 - 10 of 28
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    Sample Type
    1. Exosomes in Human Breast Milk Promote EMT
      Authors: W Qin, Y Tsukasaki, S Dasgupta, N Mukhopadhy, M Ikebe, ER Sauter
      Clin Cancer Res, 2016;0(0):.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    2. An Inducible TGF-beta2-TGFbetaR Pathway Modulates the Sensitivity of HNSCC Cells to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Targeting Dominant Receptor Tyrosine Kinases.
      Authors: Kleczko E, Kim J, Keysar S, Heasley L, Eagles J, Simon M, Marshall M, Singleton K, Jimeno A, Tan A, Heasley L
      PLoS ONE, 2015;10(5):e0123600.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    3. Differential knockdown of TGF-beta ligands in a three-dimensional co-culture tumor- stromal interaction model of lung cancer.
      Authors: Horie M, Saito A, Noguchi S, Yamaguchi Y, Ohshima M, Morishita Y, Suzuki H, Kohyama T, Nagase T
      BMC Cancer, 2014;14(0):580.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    4. Vitamin D favorably alters the cancer promoting prostaglandin cascade.
      Authors: Qin W, Smith C, Jensen M, Holick M, Sauter E
      Anticancer Res, 2013;33(9):3861-6.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    5. TGF-beta signaling regulates neuronal C1q expression and developmental synaptic refinement.
      Authors: Bialas A, Stevens B
      Nat Neurosci, 2013;16(12):1773-82.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    6. Differential expression of cancer associated proteins in breast milk based on age at first full term pregnancy.
      Authors: Qin W, Zhang K, Kliethermes B, Ruhlen RL, Browne EP, Arcaro KF, Sauter ER
      BMC Cancer, 2012;12(0):100.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Milk
    7. An autocrine TGF-beta/ZEB/miR-200 signaling network regulates establishment and maintenance of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
      Authors: Gregory PA, Bracken CP, Smith E, Bert AG, Wright JA, Roslan S, Morris M, Wyatt L, Farshid G, Lim YY, Lindeman GJ, Shannon MF, Drew PA, Khew-Goodall Y, Goodall GJ
      Mol. Biol. Cell, 2011;22(10):1686-98.
      Species: Canine
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    8. Mechanisms inducing low bone density in duchenne muscular dystrophy in mice and humans.
      Authors: Rufo A, Del Fattore A, Capulli M, Carvello F, De Pasquale L, Ferrari S, Pierroz D, Morandi L, De Simone M, Rucci N, Bertini E, Bianchi ML, De Benedetti F, Teti A
      J. Bone Miner. Res., 2011;26(8):1891-903.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    9. Maternal country of origin, breast milk characteristics and potential influences on immunity in offspring.
      Authors: Holmlund U, Amoudruz P, Johansson MA, Haileselassie Y, Ongoiba A, Kayentao K, Traore B, Doumbo S, Schollin J, Doumbo O, Montgomery SM, Sverremark-Ekstrom E
      Clin. Exp. Immunol., 2010;162(3):500-9.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Milk
    10. Urinary proinflammatory cytokine response in renal transplant recipients with polyomavirus BK viruria.
      Authors: Sadeghi M, Daniel V, Schnitzler P, Lahdou I, Naujokat C, Zeier M, Opelz G
      Transplantation, 2009;88(9):1109-16.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Urine
    11. Connexin43 knockdown accelerates wound healing but inhibits mesenchymal transition after corneal endothelial injury in vivo.
      Authors: Nakano Y, Oyamada M, Dai P, Nakagami T, Kinoshita S, Takamatsu T
      Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 2008;49(1):93-104.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Aqueous humor
    12. Potent inhibition of cicatricial contraction in proliferative vitreoretinal diseases by statins.
      Authors: Kawahara S, Hata Y, Kita T, Arita R, Miura M, Nakao S, Mochizuki Y, Enaida H, Kagimoto T, Goto Y, Hafezi-Moghadam A, Ishibashi T
      Diabetes, 2008;57(10):2784-93.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Vitreous Humor
    13. Connective tissue growth factor as a mediator of intraocular fibrosis.
      Authors: He S, Chen Y, Khankan R, Barron E, Burton R, Zhu D, Ryan SJ, Oliver N, Hinton DR
      Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 2008;49(9):4078-88.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    14. Interferon-gamma differentially regulates TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 expression in human retinal pigment epithelial cells through JAK-STAT pathway.
      Authors: Nagineni CN, Cherukuri KS, Kutty V, Detrick B, Hooks JJ
      J. Cell. Physiol., 2007;210(1):192-200.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    15. Short communication: decreasing soluble CD30 and increasing IFN-gamma plasma levels are indicators of effective highly active antiretroviral therapy.
      Authors: Sadeghi M, Susal C, Daniel V, Naujokat C, Zimmermann R, Huth-Kuhne A, Opelz G
      AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 2007;23(7):886-90.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma
    16. Tumor-derived TGFbeta-1 induces dendritic cell apoptosis in the sentinel lymph node.
      Authors: Ito M, Minamiya Y, Kawai H, Saito S, Saito H, Nakagawa T, Imai K, Hirokawa M, Ogawa J
      J. Immunol., 2006;176(9):5637-43.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    17. Strong inflammatory cytokine response in male and strong anti-inflammatory response in female kidney transplant recipients with urinary tract infection.
      Authors: Sadeghi M, Daniel V, Naujokat C, Wiesel M, Hergesell O, Opelz G
      Transpl. Int., 2005;18(2):177-85.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma
    18. Effect of ozone exposure on airway responses to inhaled allergen in asthmatic subjects.
      Authors: Chen LL, Tager IB, Peden DB, Christian DL, Ferrando RE, Welch BS, Balmes JR
      Chest, 2004;125(6):2328-35.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Airway Lavage
    19. T cell-specific ablation of Fas leads to Fas ligand-mediated lymphocyte depletion and inflammatory pulmonary fibrosis.
      Authors: Hao Z, Hampel B, Yagita H, Rajewsky K
      J. Exp. Med., 2004;199(10):1355-65.
      Species: Mouse
      Sample Type: Serum
    20. Role of transforming growth factor-beta in breast milk for initiation of IgA production in newborn infants.
      Authors: Ogawa J, Sasahara A, Yoshida T, Sira MM, Futatani T, Kanegane H, Miyawaki T
      Early Hum. Dev., 2004;77(1):67-75.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Colostrum
    21. Expression of connective tissue growth factor after glaucoma filtration surgery in a rabbit model.
      Authors: Esson DW, Neelakantan A, Iyer SA, Blalock TD, Balasubramanian L, Grotendorst GR, Schultz GS, Sherwood MB
      Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 2004;45(2):485-91.
      Species: Rabbit
      Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    22. AF5, a CNS cell line immortalized with an N-terminal fragment of SV40 large T: growth, differentiation, genetic stability, and gene expression.
      Authors: Truckenmiller ME, Vawter MP, Zhang P, Conejero-Goldberg C, Dillon-Carter O, Morales N, Cheadle C, Becker KG, Freed WJ
      Exp. Neurol., 2002;175(0):318.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    23. Progesterone upregulates TGF-b isoforms (b1, b2, and b3) expression in normal human osteoblast-like cells.
      Authors: Luo XH, Liao EY, Su X
      Calcif. Tissue Int., 2002;71(4):329-34.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    24. Gene transfer of soluble TGF-beta type II receptor inhibits experimental proliferative vitreoretinopathy.
      Authors: Oshima Y, Sakamoto T, Hisatomi T, Tsutsumi C, Ueno H, Ishibashi T
      Gene Ther., 2002;9(18):1214-20.
      Species: Rabbit
      Sample Type: Vitreous Humor
    25. Transforming growth factor-beta -Smad signaling pathway cooperates with NF-kappa B to mediate nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced MUC2 mucin transcription.
      Authors: Jono H, Shuto T, Xu H, Kai H, Lim DJ, Gum JR, Kim YS, Yamaoka S, Feng XH, Li JD
      J. Biol. Chem., 2002;277(47):45547-57.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    26. Ovariectomy increases mitogens and platelet-induced proliferation of arterial smooth muscle.
      Authors: Bracamonte MP, Rud KS, Owen WG, Miller VM
      Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol., 2002;283(3):H853-60.
      Species: Porcine
      Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    27. Circadian variations of transforming growth factor-beta2 and basic fibroblast growth factor in the rabbit aqueous humor.
      Authors: Liu JH
      Curr. Eye Res., 2002;24(1):75-80.
      Species: Rabbit
      Sample Type: Aqueous humor
    28. Transforming growth factor-beta in breast milk: a potential regulator of atopic disease at an early age.
      Authors: Kalliomaki M, Ouwehand A, Arvilommi H, Kero P, Isolauri E
      J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 1999;104(6):1251-7.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Milk
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