Detection of TIM‑3 in Human Blood Monocytes by Flow Cytometry. Human peripheral blood monocytes were stained with Rat Anti-Human TIM‑3 APC‑conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB2365A, filled histogram) or isotype control antibody (Catalog # IC006A, open histogram). View our protocol for Staining Membrane-associated Proteins.
Preparation and Storage
The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage
Protect from light. Do not freeze.
12 months from date of receipt, 2 to 8 °C as supplied.
TIM-3 (T cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin domain-3) is a 60 kDa member of the TIM family of immune regulating molecules. TIMs are type I transmembrane glycoproteins with one Ig-like V-type domain and a Ser/Thr-rich mucin stalk (1-3). Mature human TIM-3 consists of a 181 amino acid (aa) extracellular domain (ECD), a 21 aa transmembrane segment, and a 78 aa cytoplasmic tail (4). An alternately spliced isoform is truncated following a short substitution after the Ig-like domain. Within the ECD, human TIM-3 shares 58% aa sequence identity with mouse and rat TIM-3. TIM-3 is expressed on the surface of effector T cells (CD4+ Th1 and CD8+ Tc1) but not on helper T cells (CD4+ Th2 and CD8+ Tc2) (4, 5). In chronic inflammation, autoimmune disorders, and some cancers, TIM-3 is upregulated on several other hematopoietic cell types. The Ig domain of TIM-3 interacts with a ligand on resting but not activated Th1 and Th2 cells (5, 6). The glycosylated Ig domain of TIM-3 binds cell-associated galectin-9. This induces TIM-3 Tyr phosphorylation and proapoptotic signaling (7). TIM-3 functions as a negative regulator of Th1 cell activity. Its blockade results in increased IFN-gamma production, Th1 cell proliferation and cytotoxicity (5, 6, 8), regulatory T cell development (5), and increases in macrophage and neutrophil infiltration into sites of inflammation (9).
Anderson, A.C. and D.E. Anderson (2006) Curr. Opin. Immunol. 18:665.
Mariat, C. et al. (2005) Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 360:1681.
Meyers, J.H. et al. (2005) Trends Mol. Med. 11:362.
Monney, L. et al. (2002) Nature 415:536.
Sanchez-Fueyo, A. et al. (2003) Nat. Immunol. 4:1093.
Sabatos, C.A. et al. (2003) Nat. Immunol. 4:1102.
Zhu, C. et al. (2005) Nat. Immunol. 6:1245.
Koguchi, K. et al. (2006) J. Exp. Med. 203:1413.
Frisancho-Kiss, S. et al. (2006) J. Immunol. 176:6411.
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products.
The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed,
but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.