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OR

Human TNF-alpha DuoSet ELISA, 15 Plate

64 citations
  • Assay Type
    Solid Phase Sandwich ELISA
  • Format
    96-well strip plate
  • Sample Type & Volumne Required
    100 µL
  • Range
    15.60 - 1,000 pg/mL
  • Sufficient Materials
    For fifteen 96-well plates*
  • Specificity
    Please see the product datasheet
  • * Following cell simulation.
* Provided that the recommended microplates, buffers, diluents, substrates and solutions are used, and the assay is run as summarized in the Assay Procedure provided.
Product Features
  • Optimized capture and detection antibody pairings with recommended concentrations save lengthy development time
  • Development protocols are provided to guide further assay optimization
  • Assay can be customized to your specific needs
  • Economical alternative to complete kits
Kit Content
  • Capture Antibody
  • Detection Antibody
  • Recombinant Standard
  • Streptavidin conjugated to horseradish-peroxidase (Streptavidin-HRP)
Other Regeagents Required

DuoSet Ancillary Reagent Kit 2 (5 plates): (Catalog # DY008) containing 96 well microplates, plate sealers, substrate solution, stop solution, plate coating buffer (PBS), wash buffer, and Reagent Diluent Concentrate 2.

The components listed above may be purchased separately:

PBS: (Catalog # DY006), or 137 mM NaCl, 2.7 mM KCl, 8.1 mM Na2HPO4, 1.5 mM KH2PO4, pH 7.2 - 7.4, 0.2 µm filtered

Wash Buffer: (Catalog #
WA126), or 0.05% Tween® 20 in PBS, pH 7.2-7.4

Reagent Diluent: (Catalog # DY995), or 1% BSA in PBS, pH 7.2-7.4, 0.2 µm filtered

Substrate Solution: 1:1 mixture of Color Reagent A (H
2O2) and Color Reagent B (Tetramethylbenzidine) (Catalog #
DY999)

Stop Solution: 2 N H
2SO4 (Catalog #
DY994)

Microplates: R&D Systems (Catalog # DY990)

Plate Sealers: ELISA Plate Sealers (Catalog #
DY992)

 

  

Background TNF-alpha
  • Molecule Information:
    TNF-alpha
  • Long Name:
    Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha
  • Aliases:
    APC1 protein; Cachectin; DIF; TNF, monocyte-derived; TNF-a; TNF-alphacachectin; TNFATNF, macrophage-derived; TNFSF2TNF superfamily, member 2; tumor necrosis factor; tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily, member 2); tumor necrosis factor alpha; Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 2; tumor necrosis factor-alpha
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    7124 (Human); 21926 (Mouse); 24835 (Rat); 397086 (Porcine); 280943 (Bovine); 403922 (Canine); 100033834 (Equine); 493755 (Feline); 100009088 (Rabbit);
  • Background:
    TNF-alpha

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), also known as cachectin and TNFSF2, is the prototypic ligand of the TNF superfamily. It is a pleiotropic molecule that plays a central role in inflammation, apoptosis, and immune system development. TNF-α is produced by a wide variety of immune and epithelial cell types. Human TNF-α consists of a 35 amino acid (aa) cytoplasmic domain, a 21 aa transmembrane segment, and a 177 aa extracellular domain (ECD). Within the ECD, human TNF-α shares 97% aa sequence identity with rhesus and 71% - 92% with bovine, canine, cotton rat, equine, feline, mouse, porcine, and rat TNF-α. The 26 kDa type 2 transmembrane protein is assembled intracellularly to form a noncovalently linked homotrimer. Ligation of this complex induces reverse signaling that promotes lymphocyte costimulation but diminishes monocyte responsiveness.

Cleavage of membrane bound TNF-α by TACE/ADAM17 releases a 55 kDa soluble trimeric form of TNF-α. TNF-α trimers bind the ubiquitous TNF RI and the hematopoietic cell-restricted TNF RII, both of which are also expressed as homotrimers. TNF-α regulates lymphoid tissue development through control of apoptosis. It also promotes inflammatory responses by inducing the activation of vascular endothelial cells and macrophages. TNF-α is a key cytokine in the development of several inflammatory disorders. It contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes through its effects on insulin resistance and fatty acid metabolism.

Assay Procedure

GENERAL ELISA PROTOCOL

Plate Preparation

  1. Dilute the Capture Antibody to the working concentration in PBS without carrier protein. Immediately coat a 96-well microplate with 100 μL per well of the diluted Capture Antibody. Seal the plate and incubate overnight at room temperature.
  2. Aspirate each well and wash with Wash Buffer, repeating the process two times for a total of three washes. Wash by filling each well with Wash Buffer (400 μL) using a squirt bottle, manifold dispenser, or autowasher. Complete removal of liquid at each step is essential for good performance. After the last wash, remove any remaining Wash Buffer by aspirating or by inverting the plate and blotting it against clean paper towels.
  3. Block plates by adding 300 μL Reagent Diluent to each well. Incubate at room temperature for a minimum of 1 hour.
  4. Repeat the aspiration/wash as in step 2. The plates are now ready for sample addition.

Assay Procedure

  1. Add 100 μL of sample or standards in Reagent Diluent, or an appropriate diluent, per well. Cover with an adhesive strip and incubate 2 hours at room temperature.
  2. Repeat the aspiration/wash as in step 2 of Plate Preparation.
  3. Add 100 μL of the Detection Antibody, diluted in Reagent Diluent, to each well. Cover with a new adhesive strip and incubate 2 hours at room temperature.
  4. Repeat the aspiration/wash as in step 2 of Plate Preparation.
  5. Add 100 μL of the working dilution of Streptavidin-HRP to each well. Cover the plate and incubate for 20 minutes at room temperature. Avoid placing the plate in direct light.
  6. Repeat the aspiration/wash as in step 2.
  7. Add 100 μL of Substrate Solution to each well. Incubate for 20 minutes at room temperature. Avoid placing the plate in direct light.
  8. Add 50 μL of Stop Solution to each well. Gently tap the plate to ensure thorough mixing.
  9. Determine the optical density of each well immediately, using a microplate reader set to 450 nm. If wavelength correction is available, set to 540 nm or 570 nm. If wavelength correction is not available, subtract readings at 540 nm or 570 nm from the readings at 450 nm. This subtraction will correct for optical imperfections in the plate. Readings made directly at 450 nm without correction may be higher and less accurate.

 

Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

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  1. TRAIL induces necroptosis involving RIPK1/RIPK3-dependent PARP-1 activation.
    Authors: Jouan-Lanhouet S, Arshad M, Piquet-Pellorce C, Martin-Chouly C, Le Moigne-Muller G, Van Herreweghe F, Takahashi N, Sergent O, Lagadic-Gossmann D, Vandenabeele P, Samson M, Dimanche-Boitrel M
    Cell Death Differ, 2012;19(12):2003-14.
    Species: Human
  2. Role of matrix metalloproteinases in the inflammatory response in human airway cell-based assays and in rodent models of airway disease.
    Authors: Birrell MA, Wong S, Dekkak A, De Alba J, Haj-Yahia S, Belvisi MG
    J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 2006;318(2):741-50.
    Species: Human
  3. KR-003048, a potent, orally active inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.
    Authors: Montalban AG, Boman E, Chang CD, Ceide SC, Dahl R, Dalesandro D, Delaet NG, Erb E, Ernst J, Gibbs A, Kahl J, Kessler L, Lundstrom J, Miller S, Nakanishi H, Roberts E, Saiah E, Sullivan R, Wang Z, Larson CJ
    Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2010;632(1):93-102.
    Species: Human
  4. Microbial exposure, symptoms and inflammatory mediators in nasal lavage fluid of kitchen and clerical personnel in schools.
    Authors: Lignell U, Meklin T, Putus T, Vepsalainen A, Roponen M, Torvinen E, Reeslev M, Pennanen S, Hirvonen MR, Kalliokoski P, Nevalainen A
    Int J Occup Med Environ Health, 2005;18(2):139-50.
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  5. Inflammatory mediators in nasal lavage, induced sputum and serum of employees with rheumatic and respiratory disorders.
    Authors: Roponen M, Kiviranta J, Seuri M, Tukiainen H, Myllykangas-Luosujarvi R, Hirvonen MR
    Eur. Respir. J., 2001;18(3):542-8.
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    J. Immunol., 2008;180(9):6010-7.
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    Vaccine, 2006;24(31):5862-71.
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  8. Splice variants of human FOXP3 are functional inhibitors of human CD4+ T-cell activation.
    Authors: Smith EL, Finney HM, Nesbitt AM, Ramsdell F, Robinson MK
    Immunology, 2006;119(2):203-11.
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  9. Sirtuin regulates cigarette smoke-induced proinflammatory mediator release via RelA/p65 NF-kappaB in macrophages in vitro and in rat lungs in vivo: implications for chronic inflammation and aging.
    Authors: Yang SR, Wright J, Bauter M, Seweryniak K, Kode A, Rahman I
    Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol., 2007;292(2):L567-76.
    Species: Human
  10. Dynamic changes of apoptosis-inducing ligands and Th1/Th2 like subpopulations in Hantaan virus-induced hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.
    Authors: Liu JM, Zhu Y, Xu ZW, Ouyang WM, Wang JP, Liu XS, Cao YX, Li Q, Fang L, Zhuang R, Yang AG, Jin BQ
    Clin. Immunol., 2006;119(3):245-51.
    Species: Human
  11. The Toll-like receptor-2/6 agonist macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 cooperates with IFN-gamma to reverse the Th2 skew in an in vitro allergy model.
    Authors: Weigt H, Muhlradt PF, Larbig M, Krug N, Braun A
    J. Immunol., 2004;172(10):6080-6.
    Species: Human
  12. Helminth infections associated with multiple sclerosis induce regulatory B cells.
    Authors: Correale J, Farez M, Razzitte G
    Ann. Neurol., 2008;64(2):187-99.
    Species: Human
  13. Regulation of progranulin expression in human microglia and proteolysis of progranulin by matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12).
    Authors: Suh HS, Choi N, Tarassishin L, Lee SC
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(4):e35115.
    Species: Human
  14. Reactive oxygen species-independent activation of the IL-1beta inflammasome in cells from patients with chronic granulomatous disease.
    Authors: van de Veerdonk FL, Smeekens SP, Joosten LA, Kullberg BJ, Dinarello CA, Van der Meer JW, Netea MG
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2010;107(7):3030-3.
    Species: Human
  15. Adipokine resistin predicts anti-inflammatory effect of glucocorticoids in asthma.
    Authors: Leivo-Korpela S, Lehtimaki L, Vuolteenaho K, Nieminen R, Kankaanranta H, Saarelainen S, Moilanen E
    J Inflamm (Lond), 2011;8(0):12.
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  16. Human epithelial cells establish direct antifungal defense through TLR4-mediated signaling.
    Authors: Weindl G, Naglik JR, Kaesler S, Biedermann T, Hube B, Korting HC, Schaller M
    J. Clin. Invest., 2007;117(12):3664-3672.
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  17. IL-15 and the initiation of cell contact-dependent synovial fibroblast-T lymphocyte cross-talk in rheumatoid arthritis: effect of methotrexate.
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  18. Activation of platelets by Aspergillus fumigatus and potential role of platelets in the immunopathogenesis of Aspergillosis.
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  19. Enhanced apoptotic cell clearance capacity and B cell survival factor production by IL-10-activated macrophages: implications for Burkitt's lymphoma.
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  20. Thrombin-cleaved fragments of osteopontin are overexpressed in malignant glial tumors and provide a molecular niche with survival advantage.
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  21. Novel role for the liver X nuclear receptor in the suppression of lung inflammatory responses.
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  22. The differential effect of Eriobotrya japonica hydrophilic leaf extract on cytokines production and modulation.
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    Cytokine, 2007;40(3):235-40.
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  23. Modulation of neonatal microbial recognition: TLR-mediated innate immune responses are specifically and differentially modulated by human milk.
    Authors: LeBouder E, Rey-Nores JE, Raby AC, Affolter M, Vidal K, Thornton CA, Labeta MO
    J. Immunol., 2006;176(6):3742-52.
  24. Reproducibility of measurements of exhaled NO, and cell count and cytokine concentrations in induced sputum.
    Authors: Purokivi M, Randell J, Hirvonen MR, Tukiainen H
    Eur. Respir. J., 2000;16(2):242-6.
    Species: Human
  25. Association of type 2 cytokines with hepatic fibrosis in human Schistosoma mansoni infection.
    Authors: de Jesus AR, Magalhaes A, Miranda DG, Miranda RG, Araujo MI, de Jesus AA, Silva A, Santana LB, Pearce E, Carvalho EM
    Infect. Immun., 2004;72(6):3391-7.
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  26. Survey of innate immune responses to Burkholderia pseudomallei in human blood identifies a central role for lipopolysaccharide.
    Authors: Chantratita N, Tandhavanant S, Myers N, Seal S, Arayawichanont A, Kliangsa-Ad A, Hittle L, Ernst R, Emond M, Wurfel M, Day N, Peacock S, West T
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(11):e81617.
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  27. Reduced ex vivo interleukin-6 production by dietary fish oil is not modified by linoleic acid intake in healthy men.
    Authors: Damsgaard CT, Lauritzen L, Calder PC, Kjaer TR, Frokiaer H
    J. Nutr., 2009;139(7):1410-4.
    Species: Human
  28. Effects of high-dose cholecalciferol on serum markers of inflammation and immunity in patients with early chronic kidney disease.
    Authors: Alvarez J, Zughaier S, Law J, Hao L, Wasse H, Ziegler T, Tangpricha V
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 2013;67(3):264-9.
    Species: Human
  29. Heat shock protein 96 is elevated in rheumatoid arthritis and activates macrophages primarily via TLR2 signaling.
    Authors: Huang QQ, Sobkoviak R, Jockheck-Clark AR, Shi B, Mandelin AM, Tak PP, Haines GK, Nicchitta CV, Pope RM
    J. Immunol., 2009;182(8):4965-73.
    Species: Human
  30. Trappin-2/elafin modulate innate immune responses of human endometrial epithelial cells to PolyI:C.
    Authors: Drannik AG, Nag K, Yao XD, Henrick BM, Sallenave JM, Rosenthal KL
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  31. Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis undetected by tuberculin skin testing.
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    Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 2006;173(9):1038-42.
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  32. Bronchial epithelial cell growth regulation in fibroblast cocultures: the role of hepatocyte growth factor.
    Authors: Skibinski G, Elborn JS, Ennis M
    Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol., 2007;293(1):L69-76.
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  33. A cyanobacterial LPS antagonist prevents endotoxin shock and blocks sustained TLR4 stimulation required for cytokine expression.
    Authors: Macagno A, Molteni M, Rinaldi A
    J. Exp. Med., 2006;203(6):1481-92.
    Species: Human
  34. Elevated adaptive immune responses are associated with latent infections of Wuchereria bancrofti.
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  35. Tumor-associated leukemia inhibitory factor and IL-6 skew monocyte differentiation into tumor-associated macrophage-like cells.
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    Blood, 2007;110(13):4319-30.
    Species: Human
  36. IL-17 amplifies human contact hypersensitivity by licensing hapten nonspecific Th1 cells to kill autologous keratinocytes.
    Authors: Pennino D, Eyerich K, Scarponi C, Carbone T, Eyerich S, Nasorri F, Garcovich S, Traidl-Hoffmann C, Albanesi C, Cavani A
    J. Immunol., 2010;184(9):4880-8.
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  37. Plasma levels of procalcitonin and eight additional inflammatory molecules in febrile neutropenic patients.
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    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2011;66(10):1699-705.
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  39. Increased prevalence of Methanosphaera stadtmanae in inflammatory bowel diseases.
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  40. Effects of a short-course of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid on systemic and mucosal immunity in healthy adult humans.
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    Int. Immunopharmacol., 205;5(5):917-28.
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  42. Characterization and function of the human macrophage dopaminergic system: implications for CNS disease and drug abuse.
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  49. Divergent effects of hypoxia on dendritic cell functions.
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  50. Early cytokine responses after percutaneous magnetic resonance imaging guided laser thermoablation of malignant liver tumors.
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    Species: Human
  51. Age-related changes in expression and function of Toll-like receptors in human skin.
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    Development, 2012;139(22):4210-9.
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  52. Impact of tobacco-smoke on key signaling pathways in the innate immune response in lung macrophages.
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  53. TRAF5 and TRAF3IP2 gene polymorphisms are associated with Behcet's disease and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome: a case-control study.
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  54. Comparison of inflammatory elements in nasal lavage and induced sputum following occupational exposure to moldy-building microbes.
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    Inhal Toxicol, 2002;14(6):653-62.
  55. Survival and migration of human dendritic cells are regulated by an IFN-alpha-inducible Axl/Gas6 pathway.
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    J Leukoc Biol, 0;91(2):299-309.
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  57. Helminth antigens modulate immune responses in cells from multiple sclerosis patients through TLR2-dependent mechanisms.
    Authors: Correale J, Farez M
    J. Immunol., 2009;183(9):5999-6012.
  58. Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and IL-17A differentially affect the profibrotic and proinflammatory functions of fibrocytes from asthmatic patients.
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  59. Stimulation of toll-like receptor 2 by Coxiella burnetii is required for macrophage production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and resistance to infection.
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    Species: Human
  60. Cytokine response to strenuous exercise in athletes and non-athletes--an adaptive response.
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  61. Fungal proteases induce Th2 polarization through limited dendritic cell maturation and reduced production of IL-12.
    Authors: Lamhamedi-Cherradi SE, Martin RE, Ito T, Kheradmand F, Corry DB, Liu YJ, Moyle M
    J. Immunol., 2008;180(9):6000-9.
    Species: Human
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    Blood, 2011;118(18):5031-9.
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    Eur. J. Immunol., 2005;35(8):2459-70.
  64. Activation of resting human primary T cells with chimeric receptors: costimulation from CD28, inducible costimulator, CD134, and CD137 in series with signals from the TCR zeta chain.
    Authors: Finney HM, Akbar AN, Lawson AD
    J. Immunol., 2004;172(1):104-13.
    Species: Human
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    DY210

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