Chemical Name: (2S,3S,4S)-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid
Biological ActivityKainic acid, also known as kainate, is a selective agonist of kainate ionotropic glutamate receptors (EC50 = 0.6 - 7.4 μM) and a partial agonist at AMPA receptors (EC50 = 31 μM - 170 μM). Kainic acid is used to model epilepsy in vivo and to study the mechanisms of neurodegeneration and neurocytosis induced by excess stimulation by kainic acid. Kainate is shown to be involved in amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein and Aβ peptides in Alzheimer's disease.
Related compounds include synthetic Kainic acid (Cat. No. 7065), the kainate receptor agonist Domoic acid (Cat. No. 0269) and the antagonist NBQX (Cat. No. 0373).
The technical data provided above is for guidance only.
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Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
Olanzapine: preclinical and clinical profiles of a novel antipsychotic agent.
Tollefson and Taylor
CNS Drug Reviews, 2000;6:303
Excitatory amino acids.
Kainic acid as a Tool in Neurobiology. Edited by E, 1978;:37
Excitatory amino acid transmitters.
Watkins and Evans
Kainate receptor activation enhances amyloidogenic processing of APP in astrocytes.
Ourdev et al.
Citations for Kainic acid
The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Kainic acid include:
35 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
Electrophysiological evaluation of extracellular spermine and alkaline pH on synaptic human GABAA receptors.
Authors: Limó n Et al.
Transl Psychiatry 2019;9:218
Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells Become Regionally Diverse and Heterogeneous with Age.
Authors: Spitzer Et al.
TrpV1 receptor activation rescues neuronal function and network gamma oscillations from Aβ-induced impairment in mouse hippocampus in vitro.
Authors: Balleza-Tapia Et al.
JIP1-Mediated JNK Activation Negatively Regulates Synaptic Plasticity and Spatial Memory.
Authors: Morel Et al.
J Neurosci 2018;38:3708
Signaling by growth/differentiation factor 5 through the bone morphogenetic protein receptortype IB protects neurons against kainic acid-induced neurodegeneration.
Neurosci Lett 2017;651:36
Reduced sensory synaptic excitation impairs motor neuron function via Kv2.1 in spinal muscular atrophy.
Nat Neurosci 2017;20(7):905
Assembly, secretory pathway trafficking, and surface delivery of kainate receptors is regulated by neuronal activity.
Cell Rep 2017;19(12):2613
Superimposing Status Epilepticus on Neuron Subset-Specific PTEN Haploinsufficient and Wild Type Mice Results in Long-term Changes in Behavior.
Authors: Smith Et al.
Sci Rep 2016;6:36559
Involvement of AMPA Receptor and Its Flip and Flop Isoforms in Retinal Ganglion Cell Death Following Oxygen/Glucose Deprivation.
Authors: Park Et al.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2016;57:508
Augmentation of Ca(2+) signaling in astrocytic endfeet in the latent phase of temporal lobe epilepsy.
Authors: Szokol Et al.
J Biol Chem 2015;9:49
Glial metabotropic glutamate receptor-4 increases maturation and survival of oligodendrocytes.
Authors: Spampinato Et al.
Neurotox Res 2015;8:462
In vitro gamma oscillations following partial and complete ablation of δ subunit-containing GABAA receptors from parvalbumin interneurons.
Authors: Ferando and Mody
Methionine increases BDNF DNA methylation and improves memory in epilepsy.
Authors: Parrish Et al.
Neurobiol Dis 2015;2:401
CX3 chemokine receptor 1 deficiency leads to reduced dendritic complexity and delayed maturation of newborn neurons in the adult mouse hippocampus.
Authors: Xiao Et al.
Front Cell Neurosci 2015;10:772
Seizure-induced reduction in PIP3 levels contributes to seizure-activity and is rescued by valproic acid.
Authors: Chang Et al.
Neurobiol Dis 2014;62:296
Group III mGlu receptor agonist, ACPT-I, exerts potential neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo.
Authors: Domin Et al.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2014;26:99
Aversive cues fail to activate fos expression in the asymmetric olfactory-habenula pathway of zebrafish.
Authors: deCarvalho Et al.
Front Neural Circuits 2013;7:98
Altered gamma oscillations during pregnancy through loss of δ subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors on parvalbumin interneurons.
Authors: Ferando and Mody
Front Neural Circuits 2013;7:144
Phosphorylation of FMRP and alterations of FMRP complex underlie enhanced mLTD in adult rats triggered by early life seizures.
Authors: Bernard Et al.
Nat Commun 2013;59:42736
On-demand optogenetic control of spontaneous seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy.
Authors: Krook-Magnuson Et al.
J Neurosci 2013;4:1376
Activity-regulated somatostatin expression reduces dendritic spine density and lowers excitatory synaptic transmission via postsynaptic somatostatin receptor 4.
Authors: Hou and Yu
Neural Regen Res 2013;288:2501
The LIM homeodomain protein Lhx6 regulates maturation of interneurons and network excitability in the mammalian cortex.
Authors: Neves Et al.
Cereb Cortex 2013;23:1811
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ/mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 signaling protects against seizure-induced neuronal cell death in the hippocampus following experimental status epilepticus.
Authors: Chuang Et al.
J Neuroinflammation 2012;9:184
Specialized motor-driven dusp1 expression in the song systems of multiple lineages of vocal learning birds.
Authors: Horita Et al.
PLoS One 2012;7:e42173
Glutamate may be an efferent transmitter that elicits inhibition in mouse taste buds.
Authors: Huang Et al.
PLoS One 2012;7:e30662
Real-time detection of acetylcholine release from the human endocrine pancreas.
Authors: Rodriguez-Diaz Et al.
Nat Protoc 2012;7:1015
Anxiety-like behavior of prenatally stressed rats is associated with a selective reduction of glutamate release in the ventral hippocampus.
Authors: Marrocco Et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012;32:17143
Efficacy of synaptic inhibition depends on multiple, dynamically interacting mechanisms implicated in chloride homeostasis.
Authors: Doyon Et al.
J Neurosci 2011;7:e1002149
Functional role of neurotrophin-3 in synapse regeneration by spiral ganglion neurons on inner hair cells after excitotoxic trauma in vitro.
Authors: Wang and Green
J Neurosci 2011;31:7938
BACE1-/- mice exhibit seizure activity that does not correlate with sodium channel level or axonal localization.
Authors: Hitt Et al.
Mol Neurodegener 2010;5:31
Postsynaptic spiking homeostatically induces cell-autonomous regulation of inhibitory inputs via retrograde signaling.
Authors: Peng Et al.
J Neurosci 2010;30:16220
Pathological alterations in GABAergic interneurons and reduced tonic inhibition in the basolateral amygdala during epileptogenesis.
Authors: Fritsch Et al.
Mislocalization of h channel subunits underlies h channelopathy in temporal lobe epilepsy.
Authors: Shin Et al.
Neurobiol Dis 2008;32:26
TARP subtypes differentially and dose-dependently control synaptic AMPA receptor gating.
Authors: Milstein Et al.
Galanin acts as a neuroprotective factor to the hippocampus.
Authors: Elliott-Hunt Et al.
PLoS Comput Biol 2004;101:5105
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Rats were given KA to produce a spontaneous seizing animal to experiment with epileptic compounds.