Kainic acid

Newer Version Available: 7065

Discontinued Product

0222 has been discontinued and is replaced by 7065.

Kainic acid | CAS No. 487-79-6 | Kainate Receptor Agonists
1 Image
Description: Kainate agonist; excitant and neurotoxin

Chemical Name: (2S,3S,4S)-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid

Purity: ≥98%

Product Details
Citations (35)
Reviews (1)

Biological Activity

Kainic acid, also known as kainate, is a selective agonist of kainate ionotropic glutamate receptors (EC50 = 0.6 - 7.4 μM) and a partial agonist at AMPA receptors (EC50 = 31 μM - 170 μM). Kainic acid is used to model epilepsy in vivo and to study the mechanisms of neurodegeneration and neurocytosis induced by excess stimulation by kainic acid. Kainate is shown to be involved in amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein and Aβ peptides in Alzheimer's disease.

Related compounds include synthetic Kainic acid (Cat. No. 7065), the kainate receptor agonist Domoic acid (Cat. No. 0269) and the antagonist NBQX (Cat. No. 0373).

Technical Data

Digenea sp.
Soluble to 25 mM in water with gentle warming
Store at RT

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.

Background References

  1. Olanzapine: preclinical and clinical profiles of a novel antipsychotic agent.
    Tollefson and Taylor
    CNS Drug Reviews, 2000;6:303
  2. Excitatory amino acids.
    Kainic acid as a Tool in Neurobiology. Edited by E, 1978;:37
  3. Excitatory amino acid transmitters.
    Watkins and Evans
    Annu.Rev.Pharmacol.Toxicol., 1981;21:165
  4. Kainate receptor activation enhances amyloidogenic processing of APP in astrocytes.
    Ourdev et al.
    Mol.Neurobiol., 2019;56:5095

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Citations for Kainic acid

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Kainic acid include:

35 Citations: Showing 1 - 10

  1. Electrophysiological evaluation of extracellular spermine and alkaline pH on synaptic human GABAA receptors.
    Authors: Limó n Et al.
    Transl Psychiatry  2019;9:218
  2. Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells Become Regionally Diverse and Heterogeneous with Age.
    Authors: Spitzer Et al.
    Neuron  2019;101:459
  3. TrpV1 receptor activation rescues neuronal function and network gamma oscillations from Aβ-induced impairment in mouse hippocampus in vitro.
    Authors: Balleza-Tapia Et al.
    Elife  2018;7
  4. JIP1-Mediated JNK Activation Negatively Regulates Synaptic Plasticity and Spatial Memory.
    Authors: Morel Et al.
    J Neurosci  2018;38:3708
  5. Signaling by growth/differentiation factor 5 through the bone morphogenetic protein receptortype IB protects neurons against kainic acid-induced neurodegeneration.
    Authors: Zhao
    Neurosci Lett  2017;651:36
  6. Reduced sensory synaptic excitation impairs motor neuron function via Kv2.1 in spinal muscular atrophy.
    Authors: Fletcher
    Nat Neurosci  2017;20(7):905
  7. Assembly, secretory pathway trafficking, and surface delivery of kainate receptors is regulated by neuronal activity.
    Authors: Evans
    Cell Rep  2017;19(12):2613
  8. Superimposing Status Epilepticus on Neuron Subset-Specific PTEN Haploinsufficient and Wild Type Mice Results in Long-term Changes in Behavior.
    Authors: Smith Et al.
    Sci Rep  2016;6:36559
  9. Involvement of AMPA Receptor and Its Flip and Flop Isoforms in Retinal Ganglion Cell Death Following Oxygen/Glucose Deprivation.
    Authors: Park Et al.
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci  2016;57:508
  10. Augmentation of Ca(2+) signaling in astrocytic endfeet in the latent phase of temporal lobe epilepsy.
    Authors: Szokol Et al.
    J Biol Chem  2015;9:49
  11. Glial metabotropic glutamate receptor-4 increases maturation and survival of oligodendrocytes.
    Authors: Spampinato Et al.
    Neurotox Res  2015;8:462
  12. In vitro gamma oscillations following partial and complete ablation of δ subunit-containing GABAA receptors from parvalbumin interneurons.
    Authors: Ferando and Mody
    Neuropharmacology  2015;88:91
  13. Methionine increases BDNF DNA methylation and improves memory in epilepsy.
    Authors: Parrish Et al.
    Neurobiol Dis  2015;2:401
  14. CX3 chemokine receptor 1 deficiency leads to reduced dendritic complexity and delayed maturation of newborn neurons in the adult mouse hippocampus.
    Authors: Xiao Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2015;10:772
  15. Seizure-induced reduction in PIP3 levels contributes to seizure-activity and is rescued by valproic acid.
    Authors: Chang Et al.
    Neurobiol Dis  2014;62:296
  16. Group III mGlu receptor agonist, ACPT-I, exerts potential neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo.
    Authors: Domin Et al.
    Ann Clin Transl Neurol  2014;26:99
  17. Aversive cues fail to activate fos expression in the asymmetric olfactory-habenula pathway of zebrafish.
    Authors: deCarvalho Et al.
    Front Neural Circuits  2013;7:98
  18. Altered gamma oscillations during pregnancy through loss of δ subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors on parvalbumin interneurons.
    Authors: Ferando and Mody
    Front Neural Circuits  2013;7:144
  19. Phosphorylation of FMRP and alterations of FMRP complex underlie enhanced mLTD in adult rats triggered by early life seizures.
    Authors: Bernard Et al.
    Nat Commun  2013;59:42736
  20. On-demand optogenetic control of spontaneous seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy.
    Authors: Krook-Magnuson Et al.
    J Neurosci  2013;4:1376
  21. Activity-regulated somatostatin expression reduces dendritic spine density and lowers excitatory synaptic transmission via postsynaptic somatostatin receptor 4.
    Authors: Hou and Yu
    Neural Regen Res  2013;288:2501
  22. The LIM homeodomain protein Lhx6 regulates maturation of interneurons and network excitability in the mammalian cortex.
    Authors: Neves Et al.
    Cereb Cortex  2013;23:1811
  23. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ/mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 signaling protects against seizure-induced neuronal cell death in the hippocampus following experimental status epilepticus.
    Authors: Chuang Et al.
    J Neuroinflammation  2012;9:184
  24. Specialized motor-driven dusp1 expression in the song systems of multiple lineages of vocal learning birds.
    Authors: Horita Et al.
    PLoS One  2012;7:e42173
  25. Glutamate may be an efferent transmitter that elicits inhibition in mouse taste buds.
    Authors: Huang Et al.
    PLoS One  2012;7:e30662
  26. Real-time detection of acetylcholine release from the human endocrine pancreas.
    Authors: Rodriguez-Diaz Et al.
    Nat Protoc  2012;7:1015
  27. Anxiety-like behavior of prenatally stressed rats is associated with a selective reduction of glutamate release in the ventral hippocampus.
    Authors: Marrocco Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2012;32:17143
  28. Efficacy of synaptic inhibition depends on multiple, dynamically interacting mechanisms implicated in chloride homeostasis.
    Authors: Doyon Et al.
    J Neurosci  2011;7:e1002149
  29. Functional role of neurotrophin-3 in synapse regeneration by spiral ganglion neurons on inner hair cells after excitotoxic trauma in vitro.
    Authors: Wang and Green
    J Neurosci  2011;31:7938
  30. BACE1-/- mice exhibit seizure activity that does not correlate with sodium channel level or axonal localization.
    Authors: Hitt Et al.
    Mol Neurodegener  2010;5:31
  31. Postsynaptic spiking homeostatically induces cell-autonomous regulation of inhibitory inputs via retrograde signaling.
    Authors: Peng Et al.
    J Neurosci  2010;30:16220
  32. Pathological alterations in GABAergic interneurons and reduced tonic inhibition in the basolateral amygdala during epileptogenesis.
    Authors: Fritsch Et al.
    Neuroscience  2009;163:415
  33. Mislocalization of h channel subunits underlies h channelopathy in temporal lobe epilepsy.
    Authors: Shin Et al.
    Neurobiol Dis  2008;32:26
  34. TARP subtypes differentially and dose-dependently control synaptic AMPA receptor gating.
    Authors: Milstein Et al.
    Neuron  2007;55:905
  35. Galanin acts as a neuroprotective factor to the hippocampus.
    Authors: Elliott-Hunt Et al.
    PLoS Comput Biol  2004;101:5105


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Each animal receives 7.5 m/k of KA. Dosing every 1/2 after the first initial hour. Until 2 stage 4-5 seizures has been seen.
By Jenny Huff on 05/17/2019
Species: Rat

Rats were given KA to produce a spontaneous seizing animal to experiment with epileptic compounds.

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