Catalog Number: 0222
Chemical Name: (2S,3S,4S)-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid
Biological Activity
Selective agonist at kainate receptors. Potent excitant and neurotoxin. Also available as part of the Kainate Receptor Tocriset™.
Technical Data
  • M.Wt:
  • Formula:
  • Solubility:
    Soluble to 25 mM in water with gentle warming
  • Purity:
  • Storage:
    Store at RT
  • CAS No:
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis. All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.
Background References
  1. Synthesis of S-[3-(4(5)-imidazolyl)propyl]-N-[2-(4-[125I]-iodophenylethyl]isothiourea sulfate [125I]-iodophenpropit), a new probe for histamine H3 receptor binding sites.
    Menge et al.
    J.Labelled Comp.Radiopharm. XXXI, 1992;10:781
  2. Excitatory amino acid transmitters.
    Watkins and Evans
    Annu.Rev.Pharmacol.Toxicol., 1981;21:165

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Kainic acid include:

Showing Results 1 - 10 of 25

  1. Augmentation of Ca(2+) signaling in astrocytic endfeet in the latent phase of temporal lobe epilepsy.
    Authors: Szokol Et al.
    J Biol Chem
  2. Glial metabotropic glutamate receptor-4 increases maturation and survival of oligodendrocytes.
    Authors: Spampinato Et al.
    Neurotox Res
  3. In vitro gamma oscillations following partial and complete ablation of δ subunit-containing GABAA receptors from parvalbumin interneurons.
    Authors: Ferando and Mody
  4. Methionine increases BDNF DNA methylation and improves memory in epilepsy.
    Authors: Parrish Et al.
    Neurobiol Dis
  5. CX3 chemokine receptor 1 deficiency leads to reduced dendritic complexity and delayed maturation of newborn neurons in the adult mouse hippocampus.
    Authors: Xiao Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci
  6. Seizure-induced reduction in PIP3 levels contributes to seizure-activity and is rescued by valproic acid.
    Authors: Chang Et al.
    Neurobiol Dis
  7. Group III mGlu receptor agonist, ACPT-I, exerts potential neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo.
    Authors: Domin Et al.
    Ann Clin Transl Neurol
  8. Aversive cues fail to activate fos expression in the asymmetric olfactory-habenula pathway of zebrafish.
    Authors: deCarvalho Et al.
    Front Neural Circuits
  9. Altered gamma oscillations during pregnancy through loss of δ subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors on parvalbumin interneurons.
    Authors: Ferando and Mody
    Front Neural Circuits
  10. Phosphorylation of FMRP and alterations of FMRP complex underlie enhanced mLTD in adult rats triggered by early life seizures.
    Authors: Bernard Et al.
    Nat Commun
  11. On-demand optogenetic control of spontaneous seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy.
    Authors: Krook-Magnuson Et al.
    J Neurosci
  12. Activity-regulated somatostatin expression reduces dendritic spine density and lowers excitatory synaptic transmission via postsynaptic somatostatin receptor 4.
    Authors: Hou and Yu
    Neural Regen Res
  13. The LIM homeodomain protein Lhx6 regulates maturation of interneurons and network excitability in the mammalian cortex.
    Authors: Neves Et al.
    Cereb Cortex
  14. Specialized motor-driven dusp1 expression in the song systems of multiple lineages of vocal learning birds.
    Authors: Horita Et al.
    PLoS One
  15. Glutamate may be an efferent transmitter that elicits inhibition in mouse taste buds.
    Authors: Huang Et al.
    PLoS One
  16. Real-time detection of acetylcholine release from the human endocrine pancreas.
    Authors: Rodriguez-Diaz Et al.
    Nat Protoc
  17. Anxiety-like behavior of prenatally stressed rats is associated with a selective reduction of glutamate release in the ventral hippocampus.
    Authors: Marrocco Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  18. Efficacy of synaptic inhibition depends on multiple, dynamically interacting mechanisms implicated in chloride homeostasis.
    Authors: Doyon Et al.
    J Neurosci
  19. Functional role of neurotrophin-3 in synapse regeneration by spiral ganglion neurons on inner hair cells after excitotoxic trauma in vitro.
    Authors: Wang and Green
    J Neurosci
  20. BACE1-/- mice exhibit seizure activity that does not correlate with sodium channel level or axonal localization.
    Authors: Hitt Et al.
    Mol Neurodegener
  21. Postsynaptic spiking homeostatically induces cell-autonomous regulation of inhibitory inputs via retrograde signaling.
    Authors: Peng Et al.
    J Neurosci
  22. Pathological alterations in GABAergic interneurons and reduced tonic inhibition in the basolateral amygdala during epileptogenesis.
    Authors: Fritsch Et al.
  23. Mislocalization of h channel subunits underlies h channelopathy in temporal lobe epilepsy.
    Authors: Shin Et al.
    Neurobiol Dis
  24. TARP subtypes differentially and dose-dependently control synaptic AMPA receptor gating.
    Authors: Milstein Et al.
  25. Galanin acts as a neuroprotective factor to the hippocampus.
    Authors: Elliott-Hunt Et al.
    PLoS Comput Biol
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