Catalog Number: 0222
Chemical Name: (2S,3S,4S)-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid
Biological Activity
Selective agonist at kainate receptors. Potent excitant and neurotoxin. Also available as part of the Kainate Receptor Tocriset™.
Technical Data
  • M.Wt:
  • Formula:
  • Solubility:
    Soluble to 25 mM in water with gentle warming
  • Purity:
  • Storage:
    Store at RT
  • CAS No:
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis. All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.
Background References
  1. Synthesis of S-[3-(4(5)-imidazolyl)propyl]-N-[2-(4-[125I]-iodophenylethyl]isothiourea sulfate [125I]-iodophenpropit), a new probe for histamine H3 receptor binding sites.
    Menge et al.
    J.Labelled Comp.Radiopharm. XXXI, 1992;10:781
  2. Excitatory amino acid transmitters.
    Watkins and Evans
    Annu.Rev.Pharmacol.Toxicol., 1981;21:165

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Kainic acid include:

28 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Signaling by growth/differentiation factor 5 through the bone morphogenetic protein receptortype IB protects neurons against kainic acid-induced neurodegeneration.
    Authors: Zhao
    Neurosci Lett 2017;651:36
  2. Reduced sensory synaptic excitation impairs motor neuron function via Kv2.1 in spinal muscular atrophy.
    Authors: Fletcher
    Nat Neurosci 2017;20(7):905
  3. Assembly, secretory pathway trafficking, and surface delivery of kainate receptors is regulated by neuronal activity.
    Authors: Evans
    Cell Rep 2017;19(12):2613
  4. Augmentation of Ca(2+) signaling in astrocytic endfeet in the latent phase of temporal lobe epilepsy.
    Authors: Szokol Et al.
    J Biol Chem 2015;9:49
  5. Glial metabotropic glutamate receptor-4 increases maturation and survival of oligodendrocytes.
    Authors: Spampinato Et al.
    Neurotox Res 2015;8:462
  6. In vitro gamma oscillations following partial and complete ablation of δ subunit-containing GABAA receptors from parvalbumin interneurons.
    Authors: Ferando and Mody
    Neuropharmacology 2015;88:91
  7. Methionine increases BDNF DNA methylation and improves memory in epilepsy.
    Authors: Parrish Et al.
    Neurobiol Dis 2015;2:401
  8. CX3 chemokine receptor 1 deficiency leads to reduced dendritic complexity and delayed maturation of newborn neurons in the adult mouse hippocampus.
    Authors: Xiao Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci 2015;10:772
  9. Seizure-induced reduction in PIP3 levels contributes to seizure-activity and is rescued by valproic acid.
    Authors: Chang Et al.
    Neurobiol Dis 2014;62:296
  10. Group III mGlu receptor agonist, ACPT-I, exerts potential neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo.
    Authors: Domin Et al.
    Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2014;26:99
  11. Aversive cues fail to activate fos expression in the asymmetric olfactory-habenula pathway of zebrafish.
    Authors: deCarvalho Et al.
    Front Neural Circuits 2013;7:98
  12. Altered gamma oscillations during pregnancy through loss of δ subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors on parvalbumin interneurons.
    Authors: Ferando and Mody
    Front Neural Circuits 2013;7:144
  13. Phosphorylation of FMRP and alterations of FMRP complex underlie enhanced mLTD in adult rats triggered by early life seizures.
    Authors: Bernard Et al.
    Nat Commun 2013;59:42736
  14. On-demand optogenetic control of spontaneous seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy.
    Authors: Krook-Magnuson Et al.
    J Neurosci 2013;4:1376
  15. Activity-regulated somatostatin expression reduces dendritic spine density and lowers excitatory synaptic transmission via postsynaptic somatostatin receptor 4.
    Authors: Hou and Yu
    Neural Regen Res 2013;288:2501
  16. The LIM homeodomain protein Lhx6 regulates maturation of interneurons and network excitability in the mammalian cortex.
    Authors: Neves Et al.
    Cereb Cortex 2013;23:1811
  17. Specialized motor-driven dusp1 expression in the song systems of multiple lineages of vocal learning birds.
    Authors: Horita Et al.
    PLoS One 2012;7:e42173
  18. Glutamate may be an efferent transmitter that elicits inhibition in mouse taste buds.
    Authors: Huang Et al.
    PLoS One 2012;7:e30662
  19. Real-time detection of acetylcholine release from the human endocrine pancreas.
    Authors: Rodriguez-Diaz Et al.
    Nat Protoc 2012;7:1015
  20. Anxiety-like behavior of prenatally stressed rats is associated with a selective reduction of glutamate release in the ventral hippocampus.
    Authors: Marrocco Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012;32:17143
  21. Efficacy of synaptic inhibition depends on multiple, dynamically interacting mechanisms implicated in chloride homeostasis.
    Authors: Doyon Et al.
    J Neurosci 2011;7:e1002149
  22. Functional role of neurotrophin-3 in synapse regeneration by spiral ganglion neurons on inner hair cells after excitotoxic trauma in vitro.
    Authors: Wang and Green
    J Neurosci 2011;31:7938
  23. BACE1-/- mice exhibit seizure activity that does not correlate with sodium channel level or axonal localization.
    Authors: Hitt Et al.
    Mol Neurodegener 2010;5:31
  24. Postsynaptic spiking homeostatically induces cell-autonomous regulation of inhibitory inputs via retrograde signaling.
    Authors: Peng Et al.
    J Neurosci 2010;30:16220
  25. Pathological alterations in GABAergic interneurons and reduced tonic inhibition in the basolateral amygdala during epileptogenesis.
    Authors: Fritsch Et al.
    Neuroscience 2009;163:415
  26. Mislocalization of h channel subunits underlies h channelopathy in temporal lobe epilepsy.
    Authors: Shin Et al.
    Neurobiol Dis 2008;32:26
  27. TARP subtypes differentially and dose-dependently control synaptic AMPA receptor gating.
    Authors: Milstein Et al.
    Neuron 2007;55:905
  28. Galanin acts as a neuroprotective factor to the hippocampus.
    Authors: Elliott-Hunt Et al.
    PLoS Comput Biol 2004;101:5105
Expand to show all 28 Citations

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