Mouse GITR/TNFRSF18 APC-conjugated Antibody

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FAB5241A

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Detection of GITR/TNFRSF18 in Mouse Splenocytes Stimulated to Induce Tregs by Flow Cytometry.
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Mouse GITR/TNFRSF18 APC-conjugated Antibody Summary

Species Reactivity
Mouse
Specificity
Detects mouse GITR/TNFRSF18 in direct ELISAs and Western blots. In direct ELISAs, no cross-reactivity with recombinant human (rh) 4‑1BB, recombinant mouse (rm) CD27, rmCD30, rmEDAR, rmFas, rhGITR, rhHVEM, rmRANK, rhTROY, and rmTNF R1 is observed.
Source
Monoclonal Rat IgG2A Clone # 108619
Purification
Protein A or G purified from hybridoma culture supernatant
Immunogen
Mouse myeloma cell line NS0-derived recombinant mouse GITR/TNFRSF18
Met1-His153
Accession # O35714
Formulation
Supplied in a saline solution containing BSA and Sodium Azide.
Label
Allophycocyanin (Excitation= 620-650 nm, Emission= 660-670 nm)

Applications

Recommended Concentration
Sample
Flow Cytometry
10 µL/106 cells
See below

Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.

Scientific Data

Flow Cytometry Detection of GITR/TNFRSF18 antibody in Mouse Splenocytes Stimulated to Induce Tregs antibody by Flow Cytometry. View Larger

Detection of GITR/TNFRSF18 in Mouse Splenocytes Stimulated to Induce Tregs by Flow Cytometry. Mouse splenocytes stimulated to induce Regulatory T Cells (Tregs) were stained with Rabbit Anti-Human/Mouse FoxP3 Alexa Fluor® 488-conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # IC8214G) and either (A) Rat Anti-Mouse GITR/TNFRSF18 APC-conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB5241A) or (B) Rat IgG2AAllophycocyanin Isotype Control (Catalog # IC006A). View our protocol for Staining Membrane-associated Proteins.

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Preparation and Storage

Shipping
The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage
Store the unopened product at 2 - 8° C. Do not use past expiration date. Protect from light.

Background: GITR/TNFRSF18

GITR (Glucocorticoid-induced Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor), also known as AITR and CD357, is a 39-40 kDa member of the co‑stimulatory subset of the TNF receptor superfamily (1, 2). In mouse, the GITR gene is composed of five exons and encodes multiple length isoforms that arise from alternative splicing. The "standard", or first reported isoform is a type I transmembrane protein, 228 amino acids (aa) in length that contains a 19 aa signal sequence, a 134 aa extracellular region, a 21 aa transmembrane segment, and a 54 aa cytoplasmic domain. The extracellular region contains four potential N-linked glycosylation sites plus three cysteine-rich pseudorepeats of about 40 aa each (3, 4). The cytoplasmic domain has a P-x-Q/E-E motif that is known to associate with TRAF2. This is a common characteristic of TNFRSF members with co‑stimulatory functions (1). There is a naturally-occurring soluble form. Given its membership in the TNFRSF, it likely functions as a trimer on the cell surface (2). However, its ligand GITRL appears to act as a dimer, and this may affect stoichiometry of a functional GITR complex (5). In mouse, GITR is expressed by multiple cell types. These include keratinocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, NK cells, NKT cells, macrophages, and CD138+ plasma cells (6-8). It has been studied most extensively on T cells, where it appears on multiple subsets of T cells, including gamma δ CD25+ Tregs, and CD4+ GITR+ CD45RBlo effector cells,thymus-derived Tregs (CD4+ CD25+ CD83+ and CD4+ CD25+ CD103+ ), Tr1 (IL-10+ FoxP3- ) cells, CD8+ CD25+ FoxP3+ IL-10+ Tregs, and CD4- CD8- FoxP3- PD-1++ DN Tregs (9). GITR would appear to have both stimulatory and inhibitory activity, depending on the context (1). Notably, seemingly analogous interactions between the human and rodent systems can produce nonequivalent outcomes. For example, the GITR:GITRL interaction between NK cells and tumor cells results in decreased IFN-gamma secretion and and cytotoxicity by human NK cells, but the opposite effect in mouse NK cells (7). Over aa 21-153, mouse GITR shares 84% and 53% aa sequence identity with rat and human GITR, respectively.

References
  1. Hehlgans, T. and K. Pfeffer (2006) Immunology 115:1. 
  2. Croft, M. (2003) Nat. Rev. Immunol. 3:609. 
  3. Nocentini, G. et al. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:6216.
  4. Nocentini, G. et al. (2000) Cell Death Differ. 7:408.
  5. Zhou, Z. et al. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:641.
  6. Wang, J. et al. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280:37725.
  7. Placke, T. et al. (2010) Clin. Dev. Immunol. 2010:239083.
  8. Clouthier, D.L. and T.H. Watts (2014) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 25:91.
  9. Ronchetti, S. et al. (2015) J. Immunol. Res. 2015:171520.
Long Name
Glucocorticoid Induced TNF Receptor Family Related Gene
Entrez Gene IDs
8784 (Human); 21936 (Mouse); 500598 (Rat); 102146362 (Cynomolgus Monkey)
Alternate Names
Activation-inducible TNFR family receptor; AITR; AITRTNF receptor superfamily activation-inducible protein; CD357 antigen; CD357; GITR; GITR-D; GITRtumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 18; Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein; TNFRSF18; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 18

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Citation for Mouse GITR/TNFRSF18 APC-conjugated Antibody

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

1 Citation: Showing 1 - 1

  1. BACH2 represses effector programs to stabilize T(reg)-mediated immune homeostasis
    Authors: Rahul Roychoudhuri, Kiyoshi Hirahara, Kambiz Mousavi, David Clever, Christopher A. Klebanoff, Michael Bonelli et al.
    Nature

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