|Detection of Mouse IL‑34 by Western Blot. Western blot shows lysates of mouse spleen tissue and mouse brain tissue. PVDF membrane was probed with 1 µg/mL of Sheep Anti-Mouse IL‑34 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF5195) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Sheep IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF016). A specific band was detected for IL‑34 at approximately 33 kDa (as indicated). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 8.|
Cell Proliferation Induced by IL‑34 and Neutralization by Mouse IL‑34 Antibody. |
Recombinant Mouse IL‑34 (Catalog # 5195-ML) induces proliferation in the M‑NFS‑60 mouse myelogenous leukemia lymphoblast cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Proliferation elicited by Recombinant Mouse IL‑34 (100 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Sheep Anti-Mouse IL‑34 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF5195). The ND50 is typically 0.3-1.5 μg/mL.
Interleukin 34 (IL-34; also known as uncharacterized protein C16orf77 homolog) is a 39 kDa, secreted cytokine that belongs to no known cytokine family (1). Mouse IL-34 is synthesized as a 235 amino acid (aa) precursor with a 20 aa signal sequence and a 215 aa mature chain (SwissProt # Q8R1R4). The mature chain contains two potential sites for N-linked glycosylation. There are three isoforms for IL-34. Isoform 1 (Q8R1R4-1) is the recombinant mouse IL-34 described in this insert. Isoform 2 (Q8R1R4-2) has an 85 aa substitution for the final 101 aa’s in isoform 1, and isoform 3 (Q8R1R4-3) lacks Q81 in isoform 1. Mouse IL-34 is 71% identical to human IL-34 on the amino acid level. IL-34 is expressed in various tissues, including heart, brain, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, thymus, testes, ovary, small intestine, prostate, and colon, and it is most abundant in the spleen (1). The receptor for IL-34 is colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF‑1R) (1). IL-34 stimulates monocyte viability (1). In functional studies, IL-34, like CSF-1, the other ligand for CSF-1R, stimulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 (ERK1/2) in human monocytes (1). In addition, IL-34 promoted the formation of the colony-forming unit-macrophage (CFU-M), a macrophage progenitor, in human bone marrow cultures (1).
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