|Detection of Mouse and Rat Prolactin by Western Blot. Western blot shows lysates of mouse pituitary tissue and rat pituitary tissue. PVDF membrane was probed with 0.25 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Mouse/Rat Prolactin Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF1445) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF017). A specific band was detected for Prolactin at approximately 23 kDa (as indicated). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 1.|
|Cell Proliferation Induced by Prolactin and Neutralization by Mouse Prolactin Antibody. Recombinant Mouse Prolactin (Catalog # 1445-PL) stimulates proliferation in the Nb2‑11 rat lymphoma cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Proliferation elicited by Recombinant Mouse Prolactin (10 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Mouse/Rat Prolactin Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF1445). The ND50 is typically 0.25-1.0 µg/mL.|
Prolactin (PRL) is a neuroendocrine pituitary hormone. Prolactin is synthesized by the anterior pituitary, placenta, brain, uterus, dermal fibroblasts, decidua, B cells, T cells, NK cells and breast cancer cells. Originally characterized as a lactogenic hormone, further studies have demonstrated broader roles in breast cancer development, regulation of reproductive function, and immunoregulation. In the immune system, Prolactin has been shown to be secreted by human PBMC and to act as a proliferative growth factor. Additionally, Prolactin treatment of human PBMC has been shown to enhance IFN-gamma production. In the breast, Prolactin-induced morphogenesis of the mammary cells is mediated through IGF-2, which in turn upregulates cyclin D1. Prolactin has several molecular forms. The predominant form is a monomer; the non-glycosylated form is 23 kDa and the glycosylated form is 25 kDa. Glycosylated Prolactin is removed from the circulation faster and has been reported to have lower biological potency. Mouse Prolactin cDNA encodes a 228 amino acid (aa) residue protein with a putative 31 aa residue signal peptide. The Prolactin receptor is a transmembrane type I glycoprotein that belongs to the cytokine hematopoietic receptor family. B cells, T cells, macrophages, NK cells, monocytes, CD34+ progenitor cells, neutrophils, mammary gland, liver, kidney, adrenals, ovaries, testis, prostrate, seminal vesicles, and hypothalamus have all been shown to express the Prolactin receptor. Three forms of the receptor, generated by differential splicing, have been identified. These isoforms differ in the length of their cytoplasmic domains. It is believed that the short cytoplasmic form is non-functional. Prolactin signal transduction involves the JAK/STAT families and Src kinase family (1‑9).
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