Mouse/Rat Prolactin Antibody

(3 citations)   
  • Species Reactivity
    Mouse, Rat
  • Specificity
    Detects mouse and rat Prolactin in Western blots. In sandwich immunoassays, less than 1% cross-reactivity with recombinant human Prolactin is observed.
  • Source
    Polyclonal Goat IgG
  • Purification
    Antigen Affinity-purified
  • Immunogen
    E. coli-derived recombinant mouse Prolactin
    Leu32-Cys228
    Accession # NP_035294
  • Formulation
    Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.10 EU per 1 μg of the antibody by the LAL method.
  • Label
    Unconjugated
Applications
  •  
    Recommended
    Concentration
    Sample
  • Western Blot
    0.25 µg/mL
    See below
  • Immunohistochemistry
    5-15 µg/mL
    Perfusion fixed frozen sections of mouse skin and thymus
    • Mouse Prolactin Sandwich Immunoassay
      Reagent
  • ELISA Capture (Matched Antibody Pair)
    0.2-0.8 µg/mL 
    Mouse/Rat Prolactin Antibody (Catalog # AF1445)
  • ELISA Detection (Matched Antibody Pair)
    0.1-0.4 µg/mL 
    Mouse Prolactin Biotinylated Antibody (Catalog # BAF1445)
  • ELISA Standard
     
    Recombinant Mouse Prolactin Protein (Catalog # 1445-PL)
  • Neutralization
    Measured by its ability to neutralize Prolactin-induced proliferation in the Nb2‑11 rat lymphoma cell line. Gout, P. W. et al. (1980) Cancer Research 40:2433. The Neutralization Dose (ND50) is typically 0.25-1.0 µg/mL in the presence of 10 ng/mL Recombinant Mouse Prolactin.
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Data Examples
Detection of Mouse and Rat Prolactin by Western Blot. Western blot shows lysates of mouse pituitary tissue and rat pituitary tissue. PVDF membrane was probed with 0.25 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Mouse/Rat Prolactin Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF1445) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF017). A specific band was detected for Prolactin at approximately 23 kDa (as indicated). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 1.
Cell Proliferation Induced by Prolactin and Neutralization by Mouse Prolactin Antibody. Recombinant Mouse Prolactin (Catalog # 1445-PL) stimulates proliferation in the Nb2‑11 rat lymphoma cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Proliferation elicited by Rec­ombinant Mouse Prolactin (10 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concen­trations of Goat Anti-Mouse/Rat Prolactin Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF1445). The ND50 is typically 0.25-1.0 µg/mL.
Preparation and Storage
  • Reconstitution
    Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
  • Shipping
    The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
  • Stability & Storage
    Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
    • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
    • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: Prolactin

Prolactin (PRL) is a neuroendocrine pituitary hormone. Prolactin is synthesized by the anterior pituitary, placenta, brain, uterus, dermal fibroblasts, decidua, B cells, T cells, NK cells and breast cancer cells. Originally characterized as a lactogenic hormone, further studies have demonstrated broader roles in breast cancer development, regulation of reproductive function, and immunoregulation. In the immune system, Prolactin has been shown to be secreted by human PBMC and to act as a proliferative growth factor. Additionally, Prolactin treatment of human PBMC has been shown to enhance IFN-gamma production. In the breast, Prolactin-induced morphogenesis of the mammary cells is mediated through IGF-2, which in turn upregulates cyclin D1. Prolactin has several molecular forms. The predominant form is a monomer; the non-glycosylated form is 23 kDa and the glycosylated form is 25 kDa. Glycosylated Prolactin is removed from the circulation faster and has been reported to have lower biological potency. Mouse Prolactin cDNA encodes a 228 amino acid (aa) residue protein with a putative 31 aa residue signal peptide. The Prolactin receptor is a transmembrane type I glycoprotein that belongs to the cytokine hematopoietic receptor family. B cells, T cells, macrophages, NK cells, monocytes, CD34+ progenitor cells, neutrophils, mammary gland, liver, kidney, adrenals, ovaries, testis, prostrate, seminal vesicles, and hypothalamus have all been shown to express the Prolactin receptor. Three forms of the receptor, generated by differential splicing, have been identified. These isoforms differ in the length of their cytoplasmic domains. It is believed that the short cytoplasmic form is non-functional. Prolactin signal transduction involves the JAK/STAT families and Src kinase family (1‑9).

  • References:
    1. Freeman, M. et al. (2000) Physiological Reviews 80:1523.
    2. Ben-Johnson, N. et al. (1996) Endoc. Rev. 17:639.
    3. Cesario, T. et al. (1994) Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 205:89.
    4. Price, A.E. et al. (1995) Endoc. 136:4827.
    5. Hoffmann, T. et al. (1993) J. Endoc. Invest. 16:807.
    6. Cole, E. et al. (1991) Endoc. 129:2639.
    7. Lewis, U. et al. (1985) Endoc. 116:359.
    8. Matalk, K. (2003) Cytokine 21:187.
    9. Brisken, C. et al. (2002) Dev. Cell 3:877.
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    5617 (Human); 19109 (Mouse)
  • Alternate Names:
    PRL; Prolactin
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

3 Citations: Showing 1 - 3
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. Completely humanizing prolactin rescues infertility in prolactin knockout mice and leads to human prolactin expression in extrapituitary mouse tissues.
    Authors: Christensen, Heather, Murawsky, Michael, Horseman, Nelson D, Willson, Tara A, Gregerson, Karen A
    Endocrinology, 2013;154(12):4777-89.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: IHC Fresh
  2. Paternal recognition of adult offspring mediated by newly generated CNS neurons.
    Authors: Mak GK, Weiss S,
    Nat. Neurosci., 2010;13(6):753-8.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In vivo
  3. Blocking vascular endothelial growth factor-a inhibits the growth of pituitary adenomas and lowers serum prolactin level in a mouse model of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.
    Authors: Korsisaari N, Ross J, Wu X, Kowanetz M, Pal N, Hall L, Eastham-Anderson J, Forrest WF, van Bruggen N, Peale FV, Ferrara N
    Clin. Cancer Res., 2008;14(1):249-58.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: IHC Paraffin-embedded
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