Porcine TGF-beta 1 Protein

Formulations:
Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
101-B1-001
101-B1-010
Product Details
Citations (21)
FAQs
Reviews

Porcine TGF-beta 1 Protein Summary

Purity
>97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Activity
Measured by its ability to inhibit the IL-4-dependent proliferation of HT‑2 mouse T cells. Tsang, M. et al. (1995) Cytokine 7:389. The ED50 for this effect is 0.03-0.2 ng/mL.
Source
Porcine platelet-derived TGF-beta 1 protein
Structure / Form
Disulfide-linked homodimer
SDS-PAGE
12 kDa, reducing conditions

Product Datasheets

Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.

101-B1

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA with BSA as a carrier protein.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 10 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

101-B1/CF

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA.
Reconstitution Reconstitute 1 µg vials at 10 µg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin. Reconstitute 10 µg or larger vials at 100 µg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.

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Background: TGF-beta 1

TGF- beta 1 (transforming growth factor beta 1) is one of three closely related mammalian members of the large TGF-beta superfamily that share a characteristic cystine knot structure (1 - 7). TGF-beta 1, -2 and -3 are highly pleiotropic cytokines that are proposed to act as cellular switches that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (1 - 4). Each TGF-beta isoform has some non redundant functions; for TGF-beta 1, mice with targeted deletion show defects in hematopoiesis and endothelial differentiation, and die of overwhelming inflammation (2). Porcine TGF-beta 1 cDNA encodes a 390 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 29 aa signal peptide and a 361 aa proprotein (8). A furin-like convertase processes the proprotein to generate an N-terminal 220 aa latency-associated peptide (LAP) and a C-terminal 112 aa mature TGF- beta 1 (8, 9). Disulfide-linked homodimers of LAP and TGF-beta 1 remain non-covalently associated after secretion, forming the small latent TGF-beta 1 complex (8 - 10). Covalent linkage of LAP to one of three latent TGF-beta binding proteins (LTBPs) creates a large latent complex that may interact with the extracellular matrix (9, 10). TGF-beta is activated from latency by pathways that include actions of the protease plasmin, matrix metalloproteases, thrombospondin 1 and a subset of integrins (10). Mature porcine TGF-beta 1 shows 100% aa identity with human, dog and cow TGF-beta 1 and 99% aa identity with mouse, rat and horse TGF-beta 1. It demonstrates cross species activity (1). TGF-beta 1 signaling begins with high-affinity binding to a type II ser/thr kinase receptor termed TGF-beta RII. This receptor then phosphorylates and activates a second ser/thr kinase receptor, TGF-beta RI (also called activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) -5), or alternatively, ALK-1.This complex phosphorylates and activates Smad proteins that regulate transcription (3, 11, 12). Contributions of the accessory receptors betaglycan (also known as TGF-beta RIII) and endoglin, or use of Smad-independent signaling pathways, allow for disparate actions observed in response to TGF-beta in different contexts (11).

References
  1. Sporn, M.B. (2006) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 17:3.
  2. Dunker, N. and K. Krieglstein (2000) Eur. J. Biochem. 267:6982.
  3. Wahl, S.M. (2006) Immunol. Rev. 213:213.
  4. Chang, H. et al. (2002) Endocr. Rev. 23:787.
  5. Lin, J.S. et al. (2006) Reproduction 132:179.
  6. Hinck, A.P. et al. (1996) Biochemistry 35:8517.
  7. Mittl, P.R.E. et al. (1996) Protein Sci. 5:1261.
  8. Kondaiah, P. et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263:18313.
  9. Miyazono, K. et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263:6407.
  10. Oklu, R. and R. Hesketh (2000) Biochem. J. 352:601.
  11. de Caestecker, M. et al. (2004) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 15:1.
  12. Zuniga, J.E. et al. (2005) J. Mol. Biol. 354:1052.
Long Name
Transforming Growth Factor beta 1
Entrez Gene IDs
7040 (Human); 21803 (Mouse); 59086 (Rat); 397078 (Porcine); 100033900 (Equine)
Alternate Names
CEDLAP; DPD1; latency-associated peptide; TGF beta; TGF beta1; TGFB; TGFB1; TGF-beta 1 protein; TGFbeta 1; TGF-beta 1; TGFbeta; TGF-beta-1; transforming growth factor beta-1; transforming growth factor, beta 1

Citations for Porcine TGF-beta 1 Protein

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

21 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. CD96 expression determines the inflammatory potential of IL-9-producing Th9 cells
    Authors: K Stanko, C Iwert, C Appelt, K Vogt, J Schumann, FJ Strunk, S Ahrlich, S Schlickeis, C Romagnani, K Jürchott, C Meisel, G Willimsky, AA Kühl, B Sawitzki
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2018;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  2. SMAD4 feedback regulates the canonical TGF-? signaling pathway to control granulosa cell apoptosis
    Authors: X Du, Z Pan, Q Li, H Liu, Q Li
    Cell Death Dis, 2018;9(2):151.
    Species: Porcine
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  3. Regulation of fibroblast Fas expression by soluble and mechanical pro-fibrotic stimuli
    Authors: AE Dodi, IO Ajayi, C Chang, M Beard, SL Ashley, SK Huang, VJ Thannickal, DJ Tschumperl, TH Sisson, JC Horowitz
    Respir. Res., 2018;19(1):91.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  4. Specialized fibroblast differentiated states underlie scar formation in the infarcted mouse heart
    Authors: X Fu, H Khalil, O Kanisicak, JG Boyer, RJ Vagnozzi, BD Maliken, MA Sargent, V Prasad, I Valiente-A, BC Blaxall, JD Molkentin
    J. Clin. Invest., 2018;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  5. Diverse functions of clusterin promote and protect against the development of pulmonary fibrosis
    Authors: L Peix, IC Evans, DR Pearce, JK Simpson, TM Maher, RJ McAnulty
    Sci Rep, 2018;8(1):1906.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  6. Fibroblast-specific TGF-?-Smad2/3 signaling underlies cardiac fibrosis
    Authors: H Khalil, O Kanisicak, V Prasad, RN Correll, X Fu, T Schips, RJ Vagnozzi, R Liu, T Huynh, SJ Lee, J Karch, JD Molkentin
    J. Clin. Invest., 2017;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  7. Low doses of cholera toxin and its mediator cAMP induce CTLA-2 secretion by dendritic cells to enhance regulatory T cell conversion
    Authors: C Silva-Vilc, K Pletinckx, M Lohnert, V Pavlovic, D Ashour, V John, E Vendelova, S Kneitz, J Zhou, R Chen, T Reinheckel, TD Mueller, J Bodem, MB Lutz
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(7):e0178114.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  8. Glutaminolysis is required for TGF-?1-induced myofibroblast differentiation and activation
    Authors: K Bernard, NJ Logsdon, GA Benavides, Y Sanders, J Zhang, VM Darley-Usm, VJ Thannickal
    J. Biol. Chem., 2017;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  9. TGF-? signaling controls FSHR signaling-reduced ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis through the SMAD4/miR-143 axis
    Cell Death Dis, 2016;7(11):e2476.
    Species: Porcine
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  10. Context-dependent switch in chemo/mechanotransduction via multilevel crosstalk among cytoskeleton-regulated MRTF and TAZ and TGF?-regulated Smad3
    Nat Commun, 2016;7(0):11642.
    Species: Porcine
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  11. SMAD-independent down-regulation of caveolin-1 by TGF-beta: effects on proliferation and survival of myofibroblasts.
    Authors: Sanders Y, Cui Z, Le Saux C, Horowitz J, Rangarajan S, Kurundkar A, Antony V, Thannickal V
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(2):e0116995.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  12. Metabolic Reprogramming Is Required for Myofibroblast Contractility and Differentiation.
    Authors: Bernard K, Logsdon N, Ravi S, Xie N, Persons B, Rangarajan S, Zmijewski J, Mitra K, Liu G, Darley-Usmar V, Thannickal V
    J Biol Chem, 2015;290(42):25427-38.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  13. Serotonin 2B Receptor Antagonism Prevents Heritable Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
    Authors: West J, Carrier E, Bloodworth N, Schroer A, Chen P, Ryzhova L, Gladson S, Shay S, Hutcheson J, Merryman W
    PLoS ONE, 2015;11(2):e0148657.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  14. IkappaBNS regulates murine Th17 differentiation during gut inflammation and infection.
    Authors: Annemann M, Wang Z, Plaza-Sirvent C, Glauben R, Schuster M, Ewald Sander F, Mamareli P, Kuhl A, Siegmund B, Lochner M, Schmitz I
    J Immunol, 2015;194(6):2888-98.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  15. RGD surface functionalization of the hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens material to control posterior capsular opacification.
    Authors: Huang Y, Bertrand V, Bozukova D, Pagnoulle C, Labrugere C, De Pauw E, De Pauw-Gillet M, Durrieu M
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(12):e114973.
    Species: Porcine
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  16. Tc17, a unique subset of CD8 T cells that can protect against lethal influenza challenge.
    Authors: Hamada H, Garcia-Hernandez Mde L, Reome JB, Misra SK, Strutt TM, McKinstry KK, Cooper AM, Swain SL, Dutton RW
    J. Immunol., 2009;182(6):3469-81.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  17. The aberrant methylation of TSP1 suppresses TGF-beta1 activation in colorectal cancer.
    Authors: Rojas A, Meherem S, Kim YH, Washington MK, Willis JE, Markowitz SD, Grady WM
    Int. J. Cancer, 2008;123(1):14-21.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Recombinant Protein
    Applications: Bioassay
  18. TH17 cells mediate steroid-resistant airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in mice.
    Authors: McKinley L, Alcorn JF, Peterson A, Dupont RB, Kapadia S, Logar A, Henry A, Irvin CG, Piganelli JD, Ray A, Kolls JK
    J. Immunol., 2008;181(6):4089-97.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  19. 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent PDK1 negatively regulates transforming growth factor-beta-induced signaling in a kinase-dependent manner through physical interaction with Smad proteins.
    Authors: Seong HA, Jung H, Kim KT, Ha H
    J. Biol. Chem., 2007;282(16):12272-89.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  20. Transforming growth factor beta1 regulates follistatin mRNA expression during in vitro bovine granulosa cell differentiation.
    Authors: Fazzini M, Vallejo G, Colman-Lerner A, Trigo R, Campo S, Baranao JL, Saragueta PE
    J. Cell. Physiol., 2006;207(1):40-8.
    Species: Bovine
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  21. Xenopus neurula left-right asymmetry is respeficied by microinjecting TGF-beta5 protein.
    Authors: Mogi K, Goto M, Ohno E, Azumi Y, Takeuchi S, Toyoizumi R
    Int. J. Dev. Biol., 2003;47(1):15-29.
    Species: Xenopus
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo

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