Rat CX3CL1/Fractalkine Chemokine Domain Antibody

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
AF537
AF537-SP
Chemotaxis Induced by CX3CL1/Fractalkine and Neutralization by Rat CX3CL1/Fractalkine Antibody.
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Citations (17)
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Rat CX3CL1/Fractalkine Chemokine Domain Antibody Summary

Species Reactivity
Rat
Specificity
Detects rat CX3CL1/Fractalkine in ELISAs and Western blots. Neutralizes the biological activity of recombinant human CX3CL1 and recombinant mouse CX3CL1 with similar effectiveness.
Source
Polyclonal Goat IgG
Purification
Antigen Affinity-purified
Immunogen
E. coli-derived recombinant rat CX3CL1/Fractalkine
Gln25-Gly100
Accession # O55145
Formulation
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied either lyophilized or as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the antibody by the LAL method.
Label
Unconjugated

Applications

Recommended Concentration
Sample
Western Blot
0.1 µg/mL
Recombinant Rat CX3CL1/Fractalkine (Catalog # 536-FR)
Immunohistochemistry
5-15 µg/mL
See below

Rat CX3CL1/Fractalkine Sandwich Immunoassay

Recommended Concentration
Reagent
ELISA Capture (Matched Antibody Pair)
0.2-0.8 µg/mL 

Use in combination with:

Detection Reagent: Rat CX3CL1/Fractalkine Chemokine Domain Biotinylated Antibody (Catalog # BAF537)

Standard: Recombinant Rat CX3CL1/Fractalkine Protein (Catalog # 536-FR)

Neutralization
Measured by its ability to neutralize CX3CL1/Fractalkine-induced chemotaxis in the BaF3 mouse pro‑B cell line transfected with human CX3CR1. The Neutralization Dose (ND50) is typically 0.3-1.2 µg/mL in the presence of 40 ng/mL Recombinant Rat CX3CL1/Fractalkine.

Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.

Scientific Data

Neutralization Chemotaxis Induced by CX3CL1/Fractalkine and Neutralization by Rat CX3CL1/Fractalkine Antibody. View Larger

Chemotaxis Induced by CX3CL1/Fractalkine and Neutralization by Rat CX3CL1/Fractalkine Antibody. Recombinant Rat CX3CL1/Fractalkine (Catalog # 536-FR) chemoattracts the BaF3 mouse pro-B cell line transfected with human CX3CR1 in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). The amount of cells that migrated through to the lower chemotaxis chamber was measured by Resazurin (Catalog # AR002). Chemotaxis elicited by Recombinant Rat CX3CL1/Fractalkine (40 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Rat CX3CL1/Fractalkine Chemokine Domain Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF537). The ND50 is typically 0.3-1.2 µg/mL.

Immunohistochemistry CX3CL1/Fractalkine antibody in Mouse Brain by Immunohistochemistry (IHC-Fr). View Larger

CX3CL1/Fractalkine in Mouse Brain. CX3CL1/Fractalkine was detected in perfusion fixed frozen sections of mouse brain (cingulate cortex) using 1.7 µg/mL Goat Anti-Rat CX3CL1/Fractalkine Chemokine Domain Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF537) overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained with the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Frozen Tissue Sections.

Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

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Preparation and Storage

Reconstitution
Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
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Shipping
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Background: CX3CL1/Fractalkine

CX3CL1, also named neurotactin, is a member of the delta chemokine subfamily that contains a novel C-X3-C motif. Unlike other known chemokines, CX3CL1 is a type 1 membrane protein containing a chemokine domain tethered on a long mucin-like stalk. Rat CX3CL1 cDNA encodes a 393 amino acid (aa) residue precursor protein with two alternative (21 aa or 24 aa residue) putative signal peptides, a 74 aa or 76 aa residue globular chemokine domain, a 238 aa residue stalk region rich in Gly, Pro, Ser and Thr and containing degenerate mucin-like repeats, a 19 aa residue transmembrane segment and a 36 aa residue cytoplasmic domain. The extracellular domain of CX3CL1 can potentially be released as a soluble protein by proteolysis at the conserved dibasic motif proximal to the transmembrane region. With the exception of the stalk region, rat CX3CL1 shares a high degree of amino acid sequence homology (83% sequence identity) with human and mouse CX3CL1. CX3CL1 is expressed in various tissues including heart, brain, lung, kidney, skeletal muscle, and testis. In rat brain, CX3CL1 expression was found to be localized principally to neurons. The expression of CX3CL1 was also reported to be up-regulated on activated endothelial cells. Membrane-bound CX3CL1 has been shown to promote adhesion of leukocytes. The soluble chemokine domain of human CX3CL1 was reported to be chemotactic for T cells and monocytes while the soluble chemokine domain of mouse CX3CL1 was reported to chemoattract neutrophils and T‑lymphocytes but not monocytes. CX3CR1, previously named V28 or chemokine beta receptor‑like 1, has been found to be a specific receptor for CX3CL1. In addition, US28, a 7TM receptor encoded by human cytomegalovirus that binds multiple CC chemokines, has also been shown to bind CX3CL1 with high-affinity.

References
  1. Kledal, T.N. et al. (1998) FEBS Lett. 441:209.
  2. Combadiere, C. et al. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273:23799.
  3. Harrison, J.L. et al. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:10896.
  4. Rossi, D.L. et al. (1998) Genomics 47:163.
Entrez Gene IDs
6376 (Human); 20312 (Mouse); 89808 (Rat); 102117496 (Cynomolgus Monkey)
Alternate Names
ABCD-3; C3Xkine; chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1; CX3C membrane-anchored chemokine; CX3CL1; CXC3; CXC3C; FKN; Fractalkine; Neurotactin; neurotactin); NTNsmall inducible cytokine subfamily D (Cys-X3-Cys), member 1 (fractalkine; NTTSmall-inducible cytokine D1; SCYD1C-X3-C motif chemokine 1; small inducible cytokine subfamily D (Cys-X3-Cys), member-1

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Citations for Rat CX3CL1/Fractalkine Chemokine Domain Antibody

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

17 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Microglial phagocytosis and activation underlying photoreceptor degeneration is regulated by CX3CL1‐CX3CR1 signaling in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa
    Authors: Matthew K. Zabel, Lian Zhao, Yikui Zhang, Shaimar R. Gonzalez, Wenxin Ma, Xu Wang et al.
    Glia
  2. Cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus mediates nociception via release of fractalkine
    Authors: Q.Q. Zhou, S.S. Chen, Q.Q. Zhang, P.F. Liu, H.Z. Fang, Y. Yang et al.
    Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
  3. CX3CL1 is up-regulated in the rat hippocampus during memory-associated synaptic plasticity
    Authors: Graham K. Sheridan, Anita Wdowicz, Mark Pickering, Orla Watters, Paul Halley, Niamh C. O’Sullivan et al.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
  4. CX3CL1 Promotes Breast Cancer via Transactivation of the EGF Pathway
    Authors: Manuel Tardáguila, Emilia Mira, Miguel A. García-Cabezas, Anna M. Feijoo, Miguel Quintela-Fandino, Iñigo Azcoitia et al.
    Cancer Research
  5. Spinal Cathepsin S promotes visceral hypersensitivity via FKN/CX3CR1/p38 MAPK signaling pathways
    Authors: Sun, P;Lin, W;Weng, Y;Gong, J;Huang, Y;Tang, Y;Lin, C;Chen, A;Chen, Y;
    Molecular pain
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types:
    Applications: In Vivo
  6. Temporal alteration of microglia to microinfarcts in rat brain induced by the vascular occlusion with fluorescent microspheres
    Authors: Y Shen, J Cui, S Zhang, Y Wang, J Wang, Y Su, D Xu, Y Liu, Y Guo, W Bai
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 2022-08-03;16(0):956342.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  7. MicroRNA-195 prevents hippocampal microglial/macrophage polarization towards the M1 phenotype induced by chronic brain hypoperfusion through regulating CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling
    Authors: M Mao, Y Xu, XY Zhang, L Yang, XB An, Y Qu, YN Chai, YR Wang, TT Li, J Ai
    J Neuroinflammation, 2020-08-20;17(1):244.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells, Whole Tissue
    Applications: ICC, IHC
  8. Cx3cr1-deficiency exacerbates alpha-synuclein-A53T induced neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease
    Authors: S Castro-Sán, ÁJ García-Yag, T López-Royo, M Casarejos, JL Lanciego, I Lastres-Be
    Glia, 2018-04-06;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  9. Noradrenaline induces CX3CL1 production and release by neurons
    Authors: José L M Madrigal
    Neuropharmacology, 2016-12-05;114(0):146-155.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates, Whole Cells
    Applications: ICC, Western Blot
  10. Astaxanthin Inhibits Expression of Retinal Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Mediators in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.
    Authors: Yeh P, Huang H, Yang C, Yang W, Yang C
    PLoS ONE, 2016-01-14;11(1):e0146438.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates, Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P, Western Blot
  11. Selective activation of microglia facilitates synaptic strength.
    Authors: Clark A, Gruber-Schoffnegger D, Drdla-Schutting R, Gerhold K, Malcangio M, Sandkuhler J
    J Neurosci, 2015-03-18;35(11):4552-70.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Neutralization
  12. Interactions between chemokines: regulation of fractalkine/CX3CL1 homeostasis by SDF/CXCL12 in cortical neurons.
    Authors: Cook A, Hippensteel R, Shimizu S, Nicolai J, Fatatis A, Meucci O
    J. Biol. Chem., 2010-02-02;285(14):10563-71.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
    Applications: Western Blot
  13. Inhibition of spinal microglial cathepsin S for the reversal of neuropathic pain.
    Authors: Clark AK, Yip PK, Grist J, Gentry C, Staniland AA, Marchand F, Dehvari M, Wotherspoon G, Winter J, Ullah J, Bevan S, Malcangio M
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2007-06-05;104(25):10655-60.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo, Whole Cells
    Applications: ICC, Neutralization
  14. CX3CR1-dependent renal macrophage survival promotes Candida control and host survival
    Authors: Michail S. Lionakis, Muthulekha Swamydas, Brett G. Fischer, Theo S. Plantinga, Melissa D. Johnson, Martin Jaeger et al.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation
  15. Sustained expression of MCP-1 by low wall shear stress loading concomitant with turbulent flow on endothelial cells of intracranial aneurysm
    Authors: Tomohiro Aoki, Kimiko Yamamoto, Miyuki Fukuda, Yuji Shimogonya, Shunichi Fukuda, Shuh Narumiya
    Acta Neuropathologica Communications
  16. Fractalkine Signaling Regulates Macrophage Recruitment into the Cochlea and Promotes the Survival of Spiral Ganglion Neurons after Selective Hair Cell Lesion
    Authors: Tejbeer Kaur, Darius Zamani, Ling Tong, Edwin W. Rubel, Kevin K. Ohlemiller, Keiko Hirose et al.
    The Journal of Neuroscience
  17. Fractalkine and CX 3 CR1 regulate hippocampal neurogenesis in adult and aged rats
    Authors: Adam D. Bachstetter, Josh M. Morganti, Jennifer Jernberg, Andrea Schlunk, Staten H. Mitchell, Kaelin W. Brewster et al.
    Neurobiology of Aging

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Reviews for Rat CX3CL1/Fractalkine Chemokine Domain Antibody

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Rat CX3CL1/Fractalkine Chemokine Domain Antibody
By Anonymous on 12/19/2016
Application: Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence Sample Tested: Cortical neurons Species: Rat

Results published in:

Article title: Noradrenaline induces CX3CL1 production and release by neurons
Article reference: NP6524
Journal title: Neuropharmacology
Final version published online: 08-Dec-2016
DOI information: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2016.12.001


Rat CX3CL1/Fractalkine Chemokine Domain Antibody
By Anonymous on 12/01/2016
Application: IHC Sample Tested: Brain (cortex) tissue Species: Rat

Traumatic brain injury site in rat brain
Fractalkine antibody (red) and DAPI (blue)