Rat IL-9 Antibody Summary
Accession # NP_001099217
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Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Cell Proliferation Induced by IL‑9 and Neutralization by Rat IL‑9 Antibody. Recombinant Rat IL-9 (Catalog # 4134-RL) stim-ulates proliferation in the TS1 mouse helper T cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Proliferation elicited by Recombinant Rat IL-9 (10 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Sheep Anti-Rat IL-9 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF4134). The ND50 is typically 1.5-7.5 µg/mL.
Detection of IL‑9 in Rat Spleno-cytes by Flow Cytometry. Rat splenocytes were treated for 24 hours with 50 ng/mL PMA and 500 ng/mL Ca2+ionomycin then stained with Sheep Anti-Rat IL-9 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF4134, filled histogram) or control antibody (Catalog # 5-001-A, open histogram), followed by NorthernLights™ 637-conjugated Anti-Sheep IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # NL011). To facilitate intracellular staining, cells were fixed with paraformaldehyde and permea-bilized with saponin.
Preparation and Storage
- 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
- 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
- 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Rat interleukin-9 (IL-9; also T-cell growth factor P40 and MEA) is a 20‑30 kDa secreted glycoprotein that belongs to the IL-7/IL-9 family of hematopoietic cytokines. It is best considered an atypical Th2-type cytokine (1‑4). Rat IL-9 was initially isolated from the 4437A rat thymoma cell line (5). The IL-9 precursor is 144 amino acids (aa) in length and contains an 18 aa signal sequence plus a 126 aa mature segment (5). An extended, 219 aa alternate precursor form is reported in GenBank (Accession # XP_001068265). It shows a 113 aa substitution for the first 38 aa of the standard form. Its significance is unknown. Mature rat IL-9 is 75%, 74% and 58% aa identical to cotton rat, mouse and human IL-9, respectively (6‑9). There is variability in cross-species reactivity. Canine and mouse IL-9 are purportedly active on human cells (9‑11), while human IL-9 is inactive on mouse cells (9). Cells reported to express IL-9 include activated CD4+ T cells and eosinophils (12, 13). The receptor for rat IL-9 is composed of the 62 kDa rat IL-9R alpha chain and the 64 kDa rat common cytokine receptor gamma -chain (5, 14, 15). IL-9 is suggested to play a significant, but likely supporting role in allergy and asthma. Its synthesis is induced upon exposure to allergen (10, 13). Following release, it is known to upregulate IgE production by IL‑4‑stimulated B cells (16). It also stimulates mucin secretion and IL-13 production through a direct action on respiratory epithelium (10, 17). In the bone marrow, it promotes eosinophilia, likely through IL-5 induction (18, 19). And once produced, eosinophils are chemoattracted to the bronchi through the IL-9-induced secretion of eotaxin-1 by airway smooth muscle cells (20).
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