IL-9 Signaling Pathways

Click on the "Effects" button below to reveal the primary biological effects of IL-9 signaling in different immune cell types. Click on one of the other cytokines below for information on a different common cytokine receptor gamma-chain family member.

Common gamma chain
Common gamma chain
IL-9
IL-9
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IL-9 R
IL-9 R
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Jak1
Jak1
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Jak3
Jak3
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STAT1
STAT1
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STAT3
STAT3
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STAT5
STAT5
STAT Dimer
STAT Dimer

IL-9 Receptor-Expressing Cells:
T cells, B cells, mast cells, eosinophils, macrophages,
neutrophils, epithelial cells

IL-9 Receptor-Expressing Cells:
T cells, B cells, mast cells, eosinophils, macrophages,
neutrophils, epithelial cells

PI 3-K
PI 3-K
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PDK-1
PDK-1
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Akt/PKB
Akt/PKB
p70 S6K
p70 S6K
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Bad
Bad
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GSK-3
GSK-3
Forkhead
Forkhead
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IRS
IRS
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Shc
Shc
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GRB2
GRB2
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SOS
SOS
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Ras
Ras
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Raf
Raf
MEK1/2
MEK1/2
ERK1/2
ERK1/2
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PIP2
PIP2
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PIP3
PIP3
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Anti-Apoptotic

Anti-Apoptotic

Mitogenic

Mitogenic

Target Genes
Target Genes

Overview of IL-9 Signaling and its Primary Biological Effects in Different Immune Cell Types

Interleukin-9 (IL-9) is a pleiotropic cytokine that is produced by activated T lymphocytes. It signals through a receptor complex consisting of IL-9 R and the common gamma-chain/IL-2 R gamma subunit. IL-9 was initially identified as a mouse T cell and mast cell growth factor. It has subsequently been shown to regulate immunoglobulin production by B cells, enhance mast cell protease expression, and promote goblet cell hyperplasia and mucus production, suggesting a link between IL-9 and the development of allergic inflammation. Although IL-9 was originally thought to be produced primarily by Th2 cells, naïve CD4+ T cells differentiate into a distinct IL-9-secreting T cell subset known as Th9 cells in the presence of IL-4 and TGF-beta. Th9 cells secrete IL-9 and IL-10 (in mice), but do not produce cytokines characteristic of other T helper subsets. Since the precise role of Th9 cells in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation and other human diseases is not currently well understood, growing interest in this area will help to better define the effects of IL-9 signaling.

To learn more, please visit our Common gamma Chain Receptor Family Research Area.