• Assay Type
    Solid Phase Sandwich ELISA
  • Format
    96-well strip plate
  • Assay Length
    3.5 hours
  • Sample Type & Volume Required Per Well
    Cell Culture Supernates (50 uL), Serum (50 uL), EDTA Plasma (50 uL), Heparin Plasma (50 uL)
  • Sensitivity
    25 pg/mL
  • Assay Range
    31.2 - 2,000 pg/mL (Cell Culture Supernates, Serum, EDTA Plasma, Heparin Plasma)
  • Specificity
    Natural and recombinant rat VEGF. This assay cross-reacts 59% with Mouse VEGF120 (E.Coli-expressed), 73% with Mouse VEGF164 (Sf21-expressed), 14% with Canine VEGF164 (E.Coli-expressed), 26% with Human VEGF121 (Sf21-expressed), 31% with Human VEGF121 (E.Coli-expressed), 24% with Mouse VEGF162 (NS0-expressed), 0.2% with Human VEGF206 (E.Coli-expressed) and  5.2% with Human VEGF/PIGF.
  • Cross-reactivity
    Cross-reactivity observed with 1 or more available related molecules.Cross-species reactivity observed with 1 or more species tested.
  • Interference
    Interference observed with 1 or more available related molecules.
Product Summary
The Quantikine Rat VEGF Immunoassay is a 3.5 hour solid-phase ELISA designed to measure rat VEGF in cell culture supernates, serum, and plasma. It contains NS0-expressed recombinant rat VEGF and antibodies raised against the recombinant factor. This immunoassay has been shown to accurately quantitate the recombinant factor. Results obtained using natural rat VEGF showed linear curves that were parallel to the standard curves obtained using the Quantikine kit standards. These results indicate that this kit can be used to determine relative mass values for naturally occurring rat VEGF.

Intra-Assay Precision (Precision within an assay) Three samples of known concentration were tested on one plate to assess intra-assay precision.
Inter-Assay Precision (Precision between assays) Three samples of known concentration were tested in separate assays to assess inter-assay precision.
Serum, EDTA Plasma, Heparin Plasma
Intra-Assay Precision Inter-Assay Precision
Standard Deviation3.810.719.78.523.341.1

Cell Culture Supernates
Intra-Assay Precision Inter-Assay Precision
Standard Deviation5.7714.


The recovery of rat VEGF spiked to three levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated.

Sample Type Average % Recovery Range %
Cell Culture Supernates (n=6) 103 94-108
EDTA Plasma (n=6) 102 95-108
Heparin Plasma (n=6) 92 80-100
Serum (n=6) 99 90-116
To assess the linearity of the assay, samples containing and/or spiked with high concentrations of rat VEGF in each matrix were serially diluted with the appropriate Calibrator Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
Rat VEGF Quantikine ELISA Kit
Preparation and Storage
  • Storage
    Store the unopened product at 2 - 8 °C. Do not use past expiration date.
Background: VEGF
VEGF (Vascular endothelial growth factor) is a potent mediator of both angiogenesis and vasculogenesis in the fetus and adult. It is required for regulating the proliferation, migration, and survival of embryonic endothelial cells and during wound healing and the female reproductive cycle in adults. Pathologically, it is involved in tumor development and tumor vascular leakage. VEGF binds to VEGF R1/Flt-1, VEGF R2/Flk-1/KDR, and Neuropilin-1. Multiple forms of VEGF are generated by alternative splicing and proteolysis.
    • Long Name
      Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
    • Entrez Gene IDs
      7422 (Human); 22339 (Mouse); 83785 (Rat); 281572 (Bovine); 403802 (Canine); 493845 (Feline); 30682 (Zebrafish);
    • Alternate Names
      MVCD1; VAS; vascular endothelial growth factor A; Vascular permeability factor; Vasculotropin; VEGF; VEGFA; VEGF-A; VEGFMGC70609; VPF; VPFvascular endothelial growth factor;
    Related Research Areas
    Assay Procedure
    Refer to the product for complete assay procedure.

    Bring all reagents and samples to room temperature before use. It is recommended that all samples, standards, and controls be assayed in duplicate.
    1.   Prepare all reagents, standard dilutions, and samples as directed in the product insert.
    2.   Remove excess microplate strips from the plate frame, return them to the foil pouch containing the desiccant pack, and reseal.

    3. 50 µL Assay Diluent
    4.   Add 50 µL of Assay Diluent to each well.

    5. 50 µL Standard, Control, or Sample
    6.   Add 50 µL of Standard, Control, or sample to each well. Cover with a plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 2 hours on a horizontal orbital microplate shaker.
    7.   Aspirate each well and wash, repeating the process 4 times for a total of 5 washes.

    8. 100 µL Conjugate
    9.   Add 100 µL of Conjugate to each well. Cover with a new plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 1 hour on the shaker.
    10.   Aspirate and wash 5 times.

    11. 100 µL Substrate Solution
    12.   Add 100 µL Substrate Solution to each well. Incubate at room temperature for 30 minutes on the benchtop. PROTECT FROM LIGHT.

    13. 100 µL Stop Solution
    14.   Add 100 µL of Stop Solution to each well. Read at 450 nm within 30 minutes. Set wavelength correction to 540 nm or 570 nm.

    R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

    43 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
    Filter your results:

    Sample Type
    1. Protective effects on the retina after ranibizumab treatment in an ischemia model
      Authors: SC Joachim, M Renner, J Reinhard, C Theiss, C May, S Lohmann, S Reinehr, G Stute, A Faissner, K Marcus, HB Dick
      PLoS ONE, 2017;12(8):e0182407.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Aqueous humor
    2. Protective effect of maternal uteroplacental insufficiency on oxygen-induced retinopathy in offspring: removing bias of premature birth
      Authors: S Becker, H Wang, B Yu, R Brown, X Han, RH Lane, ME Hartnett
      Sci Rep, 2017;7(0):42301.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Serum
    3. Mesenchymal stem cells in corneal neovascularization: Comparison of different application routes
      Mol Med Rep, 2016;0(0):.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    4. Leptin ameliorates ischemic necrosis of the femoral head in rats with obesity induced by a high-fat diet.
      Authors: Zhou L, Jang K, Moon Y, Wagle S, Kim K, Lee K, Park B, Kim J
      Sci Rep, 2015;5(0):9397.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Plasma
    5. Metformin regulates ovarian angiogenesis and follicular development in a female polycystic ovary syndrome rat model.
      Authors: Di Pietro M, Parborell F, Irusta G, Pascuali N, Bas D, Bianchi M, Tesone M, Abramovich D
      Endocrinology, 2015;156(4):1453-63.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Cell Extract
    6. Iron-hepcidin dysmetabolism, anemia and renal hypoxia, inflammation and fibrosis in the remnant kidney rat model.
      Authors: Garrido P, Ribeiro S, Fernandes J, Vala H, Bronze-da-Rocha E, Rocha-Pereira P, Belo L, Costa E, Santos-Silva A, Reis F
      PLoS ONE, 2015;10(4):e0124048.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Serum
    7. Optimal Route for Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation to Protect Against Neonatal Hyperoxic Lung Injury: Gene Expression Profiles and Histopathology.
      Authors: Sung D, Chang Y, Ahn S, Sung S, Yoo H, Choi S, Kim S, Park W
      PLoS ONE, 2015;10(8):e0135574.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    8. Systemic siRNA Nanoparticle-Based Drugs Combined with Radiofrequency Ablation for Cancer Therapy.
      Authors: Ahmed M, Kumar G, Navarro G, Wang Y, Gourevitch S, Moussa M, Rozenblum N, Levchenko T, Galun E, Torchilin V, Goldberg S
      PLoS ONE, 2015;10(7):e0128910.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    9. Mesenchymal stem cells from rats with chronic kidney disease exhibit premature senescence and loss of regenerative potential.
      Authors: Klinkhammer B, Kramann R, Mallau M, Makowska A, van Roeyen C, Rong S, Buecher E, Boor P, Kovacova K, Zok S, Denecke B, Stuettgen E, Otten S, Floege J, Kunter U
      PLoS ONE, 2014;9(3):e92115.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    10. Antiangiogenic treatment diminishes renal injury and dysfunction via regulation of local AKT in early experimental diabetes.
      Authors: Bai X, Li X, Tian J, Zhou Z
      PLoS ONE, 2014;9(4):.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Serum
    11. Targeting Muller cell-derived VEGF164 to reduce intravitreal neovascularization in the rat model of retinopathy of prematurity.
      Authors: Jiang Y, Wang H, Culp D, Yang Z, Fotheringham L, Flannery J, Hammond S, Kafri T, Hartnett M
      Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 2014;55(2):824-31.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Serum
    12. The effect of lithospermic acid, an antioxidant, on development of diabetic retinopathy in spontaneously obese diabetic rats.
      Authors: Jin C, Yu S, Wang X, Woo S, Park H, Lee H, Choi S, Kim K, Kim J, Park K, Jang H, Lim S
      PLoS ONE, 2014;9(6):e98232.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Aqueous Humor
    13. Antagonism of bradykinin B2 receptor prevents inflammatory responses in human endothelial cells by quenching the NF-kB pathway activation.
      Authors: Terzuoli E, Meini S, Cucchi P, Catalani C, Cialdai C, Maggi C, Giachetti A, Ziche M, Donnini S
      PLoS ONE, 2014;9(1):e84358.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Synovial Fluid
    14. Anti-VEGF antibody leads to later atypical intravitreous neovascularization and activation of angiogenic pathways in a rat model of retinopathy of prematurity.
      Authors: McCloskey M, Wang H, Jiang Y, Smith G, Strange J, Hartnett M
      Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 2013;54(3):2020-6.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Serum
    15. Early cardiac changes in a rat model of prediabetes: brain natriuretic peptide overexpression seems to be the best marker.
      Authors: Nunes S, Soares E, Fernandes J, Viana S, Carvalho E, Pereira F, Reis F
      Cardiovasc Diabetol, 2013;12(0):44.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Serum
    16. Platelet rich plasma clot releasate preconditioning induced PI3K/AKT/NFkappaB signaling enhances survival and regenerative function of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in hostile microenvironments.
      Authors: Peng Y, Huang S, Wu Y, Cheng B, Nie X, Liu H, Ma K, Zhou J, Gao D, Feng C, Yang S, Fu X
      Stem Cells Dev, 2013;22(24):3236-51.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    17. The restorative effects of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells on damaged ovarian function.
      Authors: Takehara, Yuji, Yabuuchi, Akiko, Ezoe, Kenji, Kuroda, Tomoko, Yamadera, Rie, Sano, Chiaki, Murata, Nana, Aida, Takuya, Nakama, Ken, Aono, Fumihito, Aoyama, Naoki, Kato, Keiich, Kato, Osamu
      Lab Invest, 2013;93(2):181-93.
    18. Diosmin alleviates retinal edema by protecting the blood-retinal barrier and reducing retinal vascular permeability during ischemia/reperfusion injury.
      Authors: Tong N, Zhang Z, Zhang W, Qiu Y, Gong Y, Yin L, Qiu Q, Wu X
      PLoS ONE, 2013;8(4):e61794.
    19. Angiopoietins/TIE2 system and VEGF are involved in ovarian function in a DHEA rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome.
      Authors: Abramovich D, Irusta G, Bas D, Cataldi NI, Parborell F, Tesone M
      Endocrinology, 2012;153(7):3446-56.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    20. Toll-like receptor 2 mediates mesenchymal stem cell-associated myocardial recovery and VEGF production following acute ischemia-reperfusion injury.
      Authors: Abarbanell AM, Wang Y, Herrmann JL
      Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol., 2010;298(5):H1529-36.
      Species: Mouse
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    21. Overexpressing cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes protects mesenchymal stem cells against hypoxia- and serum deprivation-induced apoptosis by activation of PI3K/Akt.
      Authors: Deng J, Han Y, Yan C, Tian X, Tao J, Kang J, Li S
      Apoptosis, 2010;15(4):463-73.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    22. Angiogenesis is present in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and pro-angiogenic factors are increased in multiple sclerosis lesions.
      Authors: Seabrook TJ, Littlewood-Evans A, Brinkmann V, Pollinger B, Schnell C, Hiestand PC
      J Neuroinflammation, 2010;7(0):95.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    23. Matrix-binding vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoforms guide granule cell migration in the cerebellum via VEGF receptor Flk1.
      Authors: Ruiz de Almodovar C, Coulon C, Salin PA, Knevels E, Chounlamountri N, Poesen K, Hermans K, Lambrechts D, Van Geyte K, Dhondt J, Dresselaers T, Renaud J, Aragones J, Zacchigna S, Geudens I, Gall D, Stroobants S, Mutin M, Dassonville K, Storkebaum E, Jordan BF, Eriksson U, Moons L, D'Hooge R, Haigh JJ, Belin MF, Schiffmann S, Van Hecke P, Gallez B, Vinckier S, Chedotal A, Honnorat J, Thomasset N, Carmeliet P, Meissirel C
      J. Neurosci., 2010;30(45):15052-66.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    24. The role of supplemental oxygen and JAK/STAT signaling in intravitreous neovascularization in a ROP rat model.
      Authors: Byfield G, Budd S, Hartnett ME
      Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 2009;50(7):3360-5.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    25. Poly(Adenosine 5'-diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibition counteracts multiple manifestations of experimental type 1 diabetic nephropathy.
      Authors: Drel VR, Xu W, Zhang J, Pavlov IA, Shevalye H, Slusher B, Obrosova IG
      Endocrinology, 2009;150(12):5273-83.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    26. Phosphomannopentaose sulfate (PI-88) inhibits retinal leukostasis in diabetic rat.
      Authors: Ma P, Luo Y, Zhu X, Ma H, Hu J, Tang S
      Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2009;380(2):402-6.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    27. The effect of sustained delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor on angiogenesis in tissue-engineered intestine.
      Authors: Rocha FG, Sundback CA, Krebs NJ, Leach JK, Mooney DJ, Ashley SW, Vacanti JP, Whang EE
      Biomaterials, 2008;29(19):2884-90.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    28. Adenosine A(2B) receptor mediates an increase on VEGF-A production in rat kidney glomeruli.
      Authors: Valladares D, Quezada C, Montecinos P, Concha II, Yanez AJ, Sobrevia L, San Martin R
      Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2007;366(1):180-5.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    29. Insulin increases retinal hemorrhage in mild oxygen-induced retinopathy in the rat: inhibition by riluzole.
      Authors: Yoo MH, Yoon YH, Chung H, Cho KS, Koh JY
      Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 2007;48(12):5671-6.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    30. Bcl-2 engineered MSCs inhibited apoptosis and improved heart function.
      Authors: Li W, Ma N, Ong LL, Nesselmann C, Klopsch C, Ladilov Y, Furlani D, Piechaczek C, Moebius JM, Lutzow K, Lendlein A, Stamm C, Li RK, Steinhoff G
      Stem Cells, 2007;25(8):2118-27.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    31. Nicotine-induced vascular endothelial growth factor release via the EGFR-ERK pathway in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.
      Authors: Kanda Y, Watanabe Y
      Life Sci., 2007;80(15):1409-14.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    32. Combination therapy with the advanced glycation end product cross-link breaker, alagebrium, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in diabetes: synergy or redundancy?
      Authors: Coughlan MT, Thallas-Bonke V, Pete J, Long DM, Gasser A, Tong DC, Arnstein M, Thorpe SR, Cooper ME, Forbes JM
      Endocrinology, 2007;148(2):886-95.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Urine
    33. Inhibition of hypoxia-induced increase of blood-brain barrier permeability by YC-1 through the antagonism of HIF-1alpha accumulation and VEGF expression.
      Authors: Yeh WL, Lu DY, Lin CJ, Liou HC, Fu WM
      Mol. Pharmacol., 2007;72(2):440-9.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    34. Enhancement of glucose transporter expression of brain endothelial cells by vascular endothelial growth factor derived from glioma exposed to hypoxia.
      Authors: Yeh WL, Lin CJ, Fu WM
      Mol. Pharmacol., 2007;73(1):170-7.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    35. Triamcinolone acetonide protects the rat retina from STZ-induced acute inflammation and early vascular leakage.
      Authors: Kim YH, Choi MY, Kim YS, Park CH, Lee JH, Chung IY, Yoo JM, Choi WS, Cho GJ, Kang SS
      Life Sci., 2007;81(14):1167-73.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    36. Contributory role of VEGF overexpression in endothelin-1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.
      Authors: Shimojo N, Jesmin S, Zaedi S, Otsuki T, Maeda S, Yamaguchi N, Aonuma K, Hattori Y, Miyauchi T
      Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol., 2007;293(1):H474-81.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    37. In the adult mesenchymal stem cell population, source gender is a biologically relevant aspect of protective power.
      Authors: Crisostomo PR, Markel TA, Wang M, Lahm T, Lillemoe KD, Meldrum DR
      Surgery, 2007;142(2):215-21.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    38. Improved vascular engraftment and function of autotransplanted pancreatic islets as a result of partial pancreatectomy in the mouse and rat.
      Authors: Johansson M, Jansson L, Carlsson PO
      Diabetologia, 2007;50(6):1257-66.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Plasma
    39. Exercise training improves aging-induced downregulation of VEGF angiogenic signaling cascade in hearts.
      Authors: Iemitsu M, Maeda S, Jesmin S, Otsuki T, Miyauchi T
      Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol., 2006;291(3):H1290-8.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    40. Specific involvement of SRC family kinase activation in the pathogenesis of retinal neovascularization.
      Authors: Werdich XQ, Penn JS
      Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 2006;47(11):5047-56.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    41. Oxidative stress during peritoneal dialysis: implications in functional and structural changes in the membrane.
      Authors: Noh H, Kim JS, Han KH, Lee GT, Song JS, Chung SH, Jeon JS, Ha H, Lee HB
      Kidney Int., 2006;69(11):2022-8.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    42. Salvage effect of the vascular endothelial growth factor on chemically induced acute severe liver injury in rats.
      Authors: Namisaki T, Yoshiji H, Kojima H, Yoshii J, Ikenaka Y, Noguchi R, Sakurai S, Yanase K, Kitade M, Yamazaki M, Asada K, Uemura M, Nakamura M, Fukui H
      J. Hepatol., 2006;44(3):568-75.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    43. Antagonism of vascular endothelial growth factor results in microvessel attrition and disorganization of wound tissue.
      Authors: Gudehithlu KP, Ahmed N, Wu H, Litbarg NO, Garber SL, Arruda JA, Dunea G, Singh AK
      J. Lab. Clin. Med., 2005;145(4):194-203.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Granuloma Fluid
    Expand to show all 43 Citations
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