Recombinant Human Latent TGF-beta 1 Protein

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(1 Review)
  • Purity
    >97%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
  • Endotoxin Level
    <1.0 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
  • Activity
    Measured by its ability to inhibit the IL-4-dependent proliferation of HT‑2 mouse T cells. Tsang, M. et al. (1995) Cytokine 7:389. The ED50 for this effect is typically 20-60 ng/mL before acid activation and 0.15‑0.5 ng/mL after acid activation.
  • Source
    Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line, CHO-derived Leu30-Ser390
  • Accession #
  • N-terminal Sequence
    Leu30 & Ala279
  • Predicted Molecular Mass
    41.3  (monomer) kDa
    40-43 kDa & 12 kDa, reducing conditions
    80-90 kDa, non-reducing conditions
Carrier Free
What does CF mean?
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
What formulation is right for me?
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
Formulation Supplied as a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS and Glycerol with BSA as a carrier protein.
Formulation Supplied as a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS and Glycerol.
Shipping The product is shipped with dry ice or equivalent. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Shipping The product is shipped with dry ice or equivalent. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after opening.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after opening.
Data Images

1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human Latent TGF-beta 1 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing bands at 13, 39-42 kDa (R) and 85-95 kDa (NR). 

Recombinant Human Latent TGF-beta beta 1 (Catalog # 299-LT) inhibits Recombinant Mouse IL‑4 (Catalog # 404-ML) induced cell proliferation in the HT-2 mouse T cell line. The ED50 for this effect is typically 0.15-0.5 ng/mL after acid activation.

Background: TGF-beta 1

TGF-  beta 1 (transforming growth factor beta 1) and the closely related TGF-beta 2 and -3 are members of the large TGF-beta  superfamily. TGF-  beta proteins are highly pleiotropic cytokines that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (1-3). Human TGF-beta 1 cDNA encodes a 390 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 29 aa signal peptide and a 361 aa proprotein (4). A furin-like convertase processes the proprotein within the trans-Golgi to generate an N‑terminal 249 aa latency-associated peptide (LAP) and a C-terminal 112 aa mature TGF-beta 1 (4-6). Disulfide-linked homodimers of LAP and TGF-beta 1 remain non‑covalently associated after secretion, forming the small latent TGF-beta 1 complex (4-8). Purified LAP is also capable of associating with active TGF-beta with high affinity, and can neutralize TGF-beta activity (9). Covalent linkage of LAP to one of three latent TGF-beta binding proteins (LTBPs) creates a large latent complex that may interact with the extracellular matrix (5-7). TGF-beta activation from latency is controlled both spatially and temporally, by multiple pathways that include actions of proteases such as plasmin and MMP9, and/or by thrombospondin 1 or selected integrins (5, 8). The LAP portion of human TGF-beta 1 shares 91%, 92%, 85%, 86% and 88% aa identity with porcine, canine, mouse, rat and equine TGF-beta 1 LAP, respectively, while the mature human TGF-beta 1 portion shares 100% aa identity with procine, canine and bovine TGF-beta 1, and 99% aa identity with mouse, rat and equine TGF-beta 1. Although different isoforms of TGF-beta are naturally associated with their own distinct LAPs, the TGF-beta 1 LAP is capable of complexing with, and inactivating, all other human TGF-beta isoforms and those of most other species (9). Mutations within the LAP are associated with Camurati-Engelmann disease, a rare sclerosing bone dysplasia characterized by inappropriate presence of active TGF-beta 1 (10).

  • References:
    1. Dunker, N. and K. Krieglstein (2000) Eur. J. Biochem. 267:6982.
    2. Wahl, S.M. (2006) Immunol. Rev. 213:213.
    3. Chang, H. et al. (2002) Endocr. Rev. 23:787.
    4. Derynck, R. et al. (1985) Nature 316:701.
    5. Dabovic, B. and D.B. Rifkin (2008) “TGF-beta Bioavailability” in The TGF-beta Family. Derynck, R. and K. Miyazono (eds): Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, p. 179.
    6. Brunner, A.M. et al. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264:13660.
    7. Miyazono, K. et al. (1991) EMBO J. 10:1091.
    8. Oklu, R. and R. Hesketh (2000) Biochem. J. 352:601.
    9. Miller, D.M. et al. (1992) Mol. Endocrinol. 6:694.
    10. Janssens, K. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278:7718.
  • Long Name:
    Transforming Growth Factor beta 1
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    7040 (Human); 21803 (Mouse); 59086 (Rat); 397078 (Porcine); 100033900 (Equine)
  • Alternate Names:
    CEDLAP; DPD1; latency-associated peptide; TGFB; TGFB1; TGF-beta 1 protein; TGFbeta 1; TGFbeta; TGF-beta-1; transforming growth factor beta-1; transforming growth factor, beta 1
Related Research Areas

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

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Sample Type
  1. Induction and activation of latent transforming growth factor-beta1 are carried out by two distinct domains of pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 1 (PSG1).
    Authors: Ballesteros A, Mentink-Kane M, Warren J, Kaplan G, Dveksler G
    J Biol Chem, 2015;290(7):4422-31.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: protein
    Application: Surface Plasmon Resonance
  2. A cationic-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor inhibitor (PXS64) ameliorates kidney fibrosis by inhibiting activation of transforming growth factor-beta1.
    Authors: Zhang J, Wong M, Wong M, Gross S, Chen J, Pollock C, Saad S
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(2):e0116888.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  3. The HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 impairs B cell proliferation by inducing TGF-beta1 production and FcRL4 expression.
    Authors: Jelicic K, Cimbro R, Nawaz F, Huang D, Zheng X, Yang J, Lempicki R, Pascuccio M, Van Ryk D, Schwing C, Hiatt J, Okwara N, Wei D, Roby G, David A, Hwang I, Kehrl J, Arthos J, Cicala C, Fauci A
    Nat Immunol, 2013;14(12):1256-65.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: whole cells
    Application: Bioassay
  4. Calpain mediates pulmonary vascular remodeling in rodent models of pulmonary hypertension, and its inhibition attenuates pathologic features of disease.
    Authors: Ma W, Han W, Greer PA, Tuder RM, Toque HA, Wang KK, Caldwell RW, Su Y
    J. Clin. Invest., 2011;121(11):4548-66.
    Species: Porcine
    Sample Type: purified calpain-1
    Application: activation
  5. Membrane protein GARP is a receptor for latent TGF-beta on the surface of activated human Treg.
    Authors: Stockis J, Colau D, Coulie PG, Lucas S
    Eur. J. Immunol., 2009;39(12):3315-22.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: recombinant GARP/FC
    Application: Binding Assay
  6. Antibody-mediated blockade of integrin alpha v beta 6 inhibits tumor progression in vivo by a transforming growth factor-beta-regulated mechanism.
    Authors: Van Aarsen LA, Leone DR, Ho S, Dolinski BM, McCoon PE, LePage DJ, Kelly R, Heaney G, Rayhorn P, Reid C, Simon KJ, Horan GS, Tao N, Gardner HA, Skelly MM, Gown AM, Thomas GJ, Weinreb PH, Fawell SE, Violette SM
    Cancer Res., 2008;68(2):561-70.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  7. Metastable tolerance to rhesus monkey renal transplants is correlated with allograft TGF-beta 1+CD4+ T regulatory cell infiltrates.
    Authors: Torrealba JR, Katayama M, Fechner JH, Jankowska-Gan E, Kusaka S, Schultz JM, Hu H, Hamawy MM, Jonker M, Wubben J, Doxiadis G, Bontrop R, Burlingham WJ, Knechtle SJ
    J. Immunol., 2004;172(9):5753-64.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Type: N/A
    Application: WB Ctrl
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 Media additive for protein or antibody production Anonymous 01/13/2016


ApplicationMedia additive for protein or antibody production
Other Experimental DetailsPerformed as expected. R&D makes reliable products.

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