Recombinant Mouse Integrin alpha 4 beta 1 Protein, CF Summary
Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application.
|Mouse Integrin alpha 4|
Accession # AAH68313
|GGGSGGGSGGGS||Acidic Tail||6-His tag|
|Mouse Integrin beta 1|
Accession # P09055
Complete Your Experiment
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 200 μg/mL in PBS.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Background: Integrin alpha 4 beta 1
Integrin alpha 4 beta 1, also called VLA4, is an integrin family adhesion receptor that shares the beta 1 subunit with eleven other family members and the alpha 4 subunit with Integrin alpha 4 beta 7 (1-4). The non-covalent heterodimer of 150 kDa alpha 4/CD49d and 130 kDa beta 1/CD29 type I transmembrane glycoprotein subunits mediates cell adhesion to VCAM‑1/CD106 on other cells and the CS-1 fragment of fibronectin in the extracellular matrix (2-4). The alpha 4 extracellular domain (ECD) contains an N-terminal beta ‑propeller structure, followed by domains termed thigh, calf-1 and calf-2 (1). The beta 1 ECD contains a vWFA domain, which interacts with the alpha 4 beta -propeller to form a binding domain when the dimer is in active, extended and open conformation. Each subunit has a transmembrane sequence and a short cytoplasmic tail. The 944 aa mouse alpha 4 ECD shares 85% and 94% aa identity with human and rat alpha 4, respectively, while the 708 aa mouse beta 1 ECD shares 98% aa identity with rat and 93-94% aa identity with human, bovine, porcine, ovine, canine and feline beta 1. Leukocytes (except for neutrophils), erythroid precursors and some non-hematopoietic cells such as epicardial, endothelial and smooth muscle precursors, Schwann cells, and chorionic cells express alpha 4 beta 1 (5-9). Deletion is lethal in the mouse embryo due to faulty placentation and development of the epicardium and coronary vessels (6, 9). In the adult, alpha 4 beta 1 primarily regulates immune cell migration (10-12). Circulating leukocyte alpha 4 beta 1 is rapidly activated by inflamed endothelial cells that present VCAM-1 and chemokines such as SDF-1 (10). This activation facilitates rolling, firm adhesion, and extravasation. In humans, interfering with leukocyte migration via the therapeutic alpha 4 beta 1antibody Natalizumab can reduce the severity of autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis (11). Natalizumab can also mobilize hematopoietic precursors from the bone marrow by impeding their interaction with stromal cell VCAM-1 (7, 11). During immune cell activation, alpha 4 beta 1 can function as a costimulatory molecule (12, 13).
- Luo, B-H. et al. (2007) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 25:619.
- Takada, Y. et al. (1989) EMBO J. 8:1361.
- Argraves, W.S. et al. (1987) J. Cell Biol. 1025:1183.
- Takada, Y. et al. (2007) Genome Biol. 8:215.
- Eshghi, S. et al. (2007) J. Cell Biol. 177:871.
- Yang, J.T. et al. (1995) Development 121:549.
- Sheppard, A.M. et al. (1994) Cell Adhes. Commun. 2:27.
- Haack, H. and R.O. Hynes (2001) Dev. Biol. 233:38.
- Grazioli, A. et al. (2006) Dev. Biol. 293:165.
- Alon, R. and K. Ley (2008) Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 20:525.
- Bauer, M. et al. (2009) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106:1920.
- Banerjee, E.R. et al. (2008) Exp. Hematol. 36:1004.
- Nguyen, K. et al. (2008) Immunity 28:810.
Citation for Recombinant Mouse Integrin alpha 4 beta 1 Protein, CF
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
1 Citation: Showing 1 - 1
The role of glycoprotein H of equine herpesviruses 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4) in cellular host range and integrin binding.
Authors: Azab W, Zajic L, Osterrieder N
Vet Res, 2012;43(1):61.
Sample Types: Whole Cells
What is the amino acid sequence of the acidic and basic tails?
Acidic and basic tails are added to the protein to help facilitate optimal activity. While we generally include sequence information on the product datasheet, the sequences of these tails are considered confidential information.
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