TACS MTT Cell Proliferation Assay

A sensitive kit for the measurement of cell proliferation using MTT
Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
MTT Assay of Human Tissue-derived Liver Organoids.
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Product Details
Citations (47)

TACS MTT Cell Proliferation Assay Summary

A sensitive kit for the measurement of cell proliferation based upon the reduction of the tetrazolium salt, 3,[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2- yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT).

Key Benefits

• Allows measurement of proliferation rate, and conversely, the reduction in cell viability.
• Minimizes the number of steps necessary to complete the assay and interpret the data.
• Yields low background absorbance values in the absence of cells.
• Accurate quantification of changes in cell proliferation due to the linear relationship between cell number and signal produced for each cell type.
• Stable when stored at 4°C.

Why Use the TACS MTT Cell Proliferation Assay?

Changes in cell proliferative activity caused by trophic factors, growth inhibitors, or inducers and inhibitors of apoptosis, may be quantified using the TACS MTT Cell Proliferation Assay. MTT is reduced to an insoluble formazan dye by mitochondrial enzymes associated with metabolic activity. The reduction of MTT is primarily due to glycolytic activity within the cell and is dependent upon the presence of NADH and NADPH. The resultant intracellular purple formazan can be solubilized and quantitated by spectroscopic means.

MTT can be used to safely assess cell proliferation, cell viability, and/or cytotoxicity. MTT is added directly to the culture medium and is reduced by metabolically active cells to insoluble purple formazan dye crystals. The absorbance of the sample is read directly in the wells at an optimal wavelength of 570 nm, but any filter that absorbs between 550 and 600 nm may be used.

Kit Contents

• MTT Reagent
• Detergent Reagent


Shipping Conditions
The components for this kit may require different storage/shipping temperatures and may arrive in separate packaging. Upon receipt, store products immediately at the temperature recommended on the product labels.
Store the unopened product at 2 - 8 °C. Do not use past expiration date.


For research use only. Not for diagnostic use.

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Scientific Data

MTT Assay of Human Tissue-derived Liver Organoids. Human Liver organoids were derived from human biopsy tissue. Undifferentiated liver organoids were formed by embedding dissociated tissue in Cultrex RGF BME, Type 2 (Catalog # 3533-005-02) and culturing in specialized media. Liver organoids were differentiated using media containing Recombinant Human FGF-19 (Catalog # 969-FG), DAPT (Catalog # 2634), and Dexamethasone (Catalog # 1126). A) Representative images of untreated control and DMSO-treated (positive control) undifferentiated and differentiated liver organoids. B) Quantification of MTT staining of cells treated with varying doses of acetaminophen, Trovafloxin, or Doxorubicin showed a dose-dependent loss of cell viability under each condition. Interestingly, liver organoids showed increased vulnerability to hepatotoxicity as they matured in differentiation media.

Toxicity analysis of iPSC-derived Hepatocytes using TACS MTT Proliferation Assay and the CometChip Assay. iPSC-derived hepatocytes were generated using the StemXVivo Hepatocyte Differentiation Kit (Catalog # SC033). iPSC-derived hepatocytes were treated with Acetaminophen, Trovafloxacin, and Doxorubicin and dose response toxicity profiles using the (A) TACS MTT Cell Proliferation Assay or (B) CometChip (Catalog # 4260-096-ESK). Using the MTT assay, Trovafloxacin and Doxorubicin showed significantly increased loss of cell metabolic activity at 100 µM and >10 µM, respectively. Increased DNA damage was detected at these two concentrations using the CometChip (n ≥ 3 for each group).

HepG2 Spheroid Toxicity Detected using the MTT Assay. A) Hepatocyte spheroids were formed by plating HepG2 liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells (10,000 cells per well) in a 24-well plate coated with Cultrex RGF BME, Type 2 (Catalog # 3533-005-02). B) HepG2 spheroids were cultured for 21 days prior exposure to acetaminophen, trovafloxacin, or doxorubicin. Spheroids showed significantly increased loss of cell metabolic activity at 100 µM and >10 µM, respectively (n ≥ 3 for each group), as detected by the MTT Assay.

Citations for TACS MTT Cell Proliferation Assay

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

47 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. miR766-3p and miR124-3p Dictate Drug Resistance and Clinical Outcome in HNSCC
    Authors: T Shibata, DY Cao, TB Dar, F Ahmed, SA Bhat, LC Veiras, EA Bernstein, AA Khan, M Chaum, SL Shiao, WG Tourtellot, JF Giani, KE Bernstein, X Cui, E Vail, Z Khan
    Cancers, 2022;14(21):.  2022
  2. Acidic ascites inhibits ovarian cancer cell proliferation and correlates with the metabolomic, lipidomic and inflammatory phenotype of human patients
    Authors: Q Yang, G Bae, G Nadiradze, A Castagna, G Berezhnoy, L Zizmare, A Kulkarni, Y Singh, FJ Weinreich, S Kommoss, MA Reymond, C Trautwein
    Journal of Translational Medicine, 2022;20(1):581.  2022
  3. Toll-like receptor 4 activation enhances Orai1-mediated calcium signal promoting cytokine production in spinal astrocytes
    Authors: H Birla, J Xia, X Gao, H Zhao, F Wang, S Patel, A Amponsah, A Bekker, YX Tao, H Hu
    Cell Calcium, 2022;105(0):102619.  2022
  4. Enhancement of MDM2 inhibitory effects through blocking nuclear export mechanisms in ovarian cancer cells
    Authors: A Alzahrani, U Natarajan, A Rathinavel
    Oncogene, 2022;266(0):57-68.  2022
  5. Targeted Extracellular Vesicles Delivered Verrucarin A to Treat Glioblastoma
    Authors: K Chen, Y Si, JS Guan, Z Zhou, S Kim, T Kim, L Shan, CD Willey, L Zhou, X Liu
    Biomedicines, 2022;10(1):.  2022
  6. Mutant p53 promotes RCP-dependent chemoresistance coinciding with increased delivery of P-glycoprotein to the plasma membrane
    Authors: V Phatak, Y von Grabow, J Janus, L Officer, C Behan, L Aschauer, L Pinon, H Mackay, S Zanivan, JC Norman, M Kelly, J Le Quesne, PAJ Muller
    Cell Death & Disease, 2021;12(2):207.  2021
  7. Hepatitis B virus induces sorafenib resistance in liver cancer via upregulation of cIAP2 expression
    Authors: S Zhang, N Li, Y Sheng, W Chen, Q Ma, X Yu, J Lian, J Zeng, Y Yang, J Yan
    Infectious agents and cancer, 2021;16(1):20.  2021
  8. Cell-autonomous inflammation of BRCA1-deficient ovarian cancers drives both tumor-intrinsic immunoreactivity and immune resistance via STING
    Authors: M Bruand, D Barras, M Mina, E Ghisoni, M Morotti, E Lanitis, N Fahr, M Desbuisson, A Grimm, H Zhang, C Chong, J Dagher, S Chee, T Tsianou, J Dorier, BJ Stevenson, C Iseli, C Ronet, S Bobisse, R Genolet, J Walton, M Bassani-St, LE Kandalaft, B Ren, I McNeish, E Swisher, A Harari, M Delorenzi, G Ciriello, M Irving, S Rusakiewic, PG Foukas, F Martinon, D Dangaj Lan, G Coukos
    Cell Reports, 2021;36(3):109412.  2021
  9. Pancreastatin Reduces Alternatively Activated Macrophages, Disrupts the Epithelial Homeostasis and Aggravates Colonic Inflammation. A Descriptive Analysis
    Authors: N Eissa, O Elgazzar, H Hussein, GN Hendy, CN Bernstein, JE Ghia
    Biomedicines, 2021;9(2):.  2021
  10. XMD-17-51 Inhibits DCLK1 Kinase and Prevents Lung Cancer Progression
    Authors: WQ Yang, WJ Zhao, LL Zhu, SJ Xu, XL Zhang, Y Liang, XF Ding, A Kiselyov, G Chen
    Frontiers in Pharmacology, 2021;12(0):603453.  2021
  11. Differential Expression of PD-L1 during Cell Cycle Progression of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    Authors: D Schulz, M Wetzel, J Eichberger, G Piendl, G Brockhoff, AK Wege, TE Reichert, T Ettl, RJ Bauer
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2021;22(23):.  2021
  12. Ruxolitinib Combined with Gemcitabine against Cholangiocarcinoma Growth via the JAK2/STAT1/3/ALDH1A3 Pathway
    Authors: SY Chung, YP Hung, YR Pan, YC Chang, CE Wu, DS Hsu, PM Chang, ML Lu, CF Huang, Y Su, M Hsiao, CN Yeh, MH Chen
    Biomedicines, 2021;9(8):.  2021
  13. The Effect of Neddylation Inhibition on Inflammation-Induced MMP9 Gene Expression in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    Authors: A Hryniewicz, J Wierzbicki, R Tabola, K Stach, K Sossey-Ala, K Augoff
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2021;22(4):.  2021
  14. Chemical analysis and anticancer activity of sesterterpenoid from an endophytic fungus Hypomontagnella monticulosa Zg15SU and its host Zingiber griffithii Baker
    Authors: A Lutfia, E Munir, Y Yurnaliza, M Basyuni
    Heliyon, 2021;7(2):e06292.  2021
  15. Synergisms of genome and metabolism stabilizing antitumor therapy (GMSAT) in human breast and colon cancer cell lines: a novel approach to screen for synergism
    Authors: J Ruhnau, J Parczyk, K Danker, B Eickholt, A Klein
    BMC Cancer, 2020;20(1):617.  2020
  16. SOX9 Knockout Induces Polyploidy and Changes Sensitivity to Tumor Treatment Strategies in a Chondrosarcoma Cell Line
    Authors: S Stöckl, G Lindner, S Li, P Schuster, S Haferkamp, F Wagner, PM Prodinger, G Multhoff, M Boxberg, A Hillmann, RJ Bauer, S Grässel
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020;21(20):.  2020
  17. Targeting the ABC transporter ABCB5 sensitizes glioblastoma to temozolomide-induced apoptosis through a cell-cycle checkpoint regulation mechanism
    Authors: CAA Lee, P Banerjee, BJ Wilson, S Wu, Q Guo, G Berg, S Karpova, A Mishra, JW Lian, J Tran, M Emmerich, GF Murphy, MH Frank, NY Frank
    J. Biol. Chem., 2020;0(0):.  2020
  18. Methodology for processing mastectomy and cryopreservation of breast cancer tissue in a resource- poor setting: A pilot study
    Authors: UA Okoli, MT Okafor, KA Agu, AC Ndubuisi, IJ Nwigwe, EO Nna, OC Okafor, FI Ukekwe, TU Nwagha, VC Menkiti, CO Eze, KC Onyekwelu, JE Ikekpeazu, CA Anusiem, AU Mbah, CP Chijioke, IJ Udeniya
    Cryobiology, 2020;0(0):.  2020
  19. Direct incorporation of mesenchymal stem cells into a Nanofiber scaffold - in vitro and in vivo analysis
    Authors: KF Schüttler, MW Bauhofer, V Ketter, K Giese, DA Eschbach, M Yenigün, S Fuchs-Wink, JRJ Paletta
    Sci Rep, 2020;10(1):9557.  2020
  20. l-tetrahydropalmatine suppresses osteoclastogenesis in vivo and in vitro via blocking RANK-TRAF6 interactions and inhibiting NF-kappaB and MAPK pathways
    Authors: X Zhi, L Wang, H Chen, C Fang, J Cui, Y Hu, L Cao, W Weng, Q Zhou, L Qin, H Song, Y Wang, Y Wang, H Jiang, X Li, S Wang, X Chen, J Su
    J. Cell. Mol. Med., 2019;0(0):.  2019
  21. Anticancer effect of fucoidan on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, genetic damage and apoptotic cell death in HepG2 cancer cells
    Authors: A P, A K, S L, M M, M K
    Toxicol Rep, 2019;6(0):556-563.  2019
  22. Circular RNA circ-FoxO3 Inhibits Myoblast Cells Differentiation
    Authors: X Li, C Li, Z Liu, W Ni, R Yao, Y Xu, R Quan, M Zhang, H Li, L Liu, S Hu
    Cells, 2019;8(6):.  2019
  23. ALDH1A3, the major aldehyde dehydrogenase isoform in human cholangiocarcinoma cells, affects prognosis and gemcitabine resistance in cholangiocarcinoma patients
    Authors: MH Chen, JJ Weng, CT Cheng, RC Wu, SC Huang, CE Wu, YH Chung, CY Liu, MH Chang, MH Chen, KC Chiang, TS Yeh, Y Su, CN Yeh
    Clin Cancer Res, 2016;0(0):.  2016
  24. Inhibition of hyaluronic acid formation sensitizes chronic myelogenous leukemia to treatment with doxorubicin
    Authors: Olga N Uchakina
    Glycobiology, 2016;0(0):.  2016
  25. Dissecting the role of endothelial SURVIVIN DeltaEx3 in angiogenesis.
    Authors: Caldas H, Fangusaro JR, Boue DR, Holloway MP, Altura RA
    Blood, 2007;109(4):1479-89.  2007
  26. Suppression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and TNF-alpha mRNA expression in human monocytes by allicin.
    Authors: Hasan N, Yusuf N, Toossi Z, Islam N
    FEBS Lett., 2006;580(10):2517-22.  2006
  27. Nicotine Reduces Survival via Augmentation of Paracrine HGF-MET Signaling in the Pancreatic Cancer Microenvironment.
    Authors: Delitto D, Zhang D, Han S, Black B, Knowlton A, Vlada A, Sarosi G, Behrns K, Thomas R, Lu X, Liu C, George T, Hughes S, Wallet S, Trevino J
    Clin Cancer Res, 0;22(7):1787-99.  0
  28. In vitro antimicrobial studies of silver carbene complexes: activity of free and nanoparticle carbene formulations against clinical isolates of pathogenic bacteria.
    Authors: Leid J, Ditto A, Knapp A, Shah P, Wright B, Blust R, Christensen L, Clemons C, Wilber J, Young G, Kang A, Panzner M, Cannon C, Yun Y, Youngs W, Seckinger N, Cope E
    J Antimicrob Chemother, 0;67(1):138-48.  0
  29. Identification of Chemical Compounds That Inhibit Protein Synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
    Authors: Palmer S, Hu Y, Keniry M, Bullard J
    SLAS Discov, 0;22(6):775-782.  0
  30. Comparison of electrospun and solvent cast polylactic acid (PLA)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) inserts as potential ocular drug delivery vehicles.
    Authors: Bhattarai R, Das A, Alzhrani R, Kang D, Bhaduri S, Boddu S
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 0;77(0):895-903.  0
  31. Lenalidomide interferes with tumor-promoting properties of nurse-like cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
    Authors: Fiorcari S, Martinelli S, Bulgarelli J, Audrito V, Zucchini P, Colaci E, Potenza L, Narni F, Luppi M, Deaglio S, Marasca R, Maffei R
    Haematologica, 0;100(2):253-62.  0
  32. Development and qualification of an LC-MS/MS method for investigating the biological implications of micelle entrapped paclitaxel in cell culture and rats.
    Authors: Kaddoumi A, Gill K, Elfakhri K, Nazzal S
    Biomed Chromatogr, 0;31(9):.  0
  33. A functional screening of the kinome identifies the Polo-like kinase 4 as a potential therapeutic target for malignant rhabdoid tumors, and possibly, other embryonal tumors of the brain.
    Authors: Sredni S, Suzuki M, Yang J, Topczewski J, Bailey A, Gokirmak T, Gross J, de Andrade A, Kondo A, Piper D, Tomita T
    Pediatr Blood Cancer, 0;64(11):.  0
  34. Vaccine-induced tumor necrosis factor-producing T cells synergize with cisplatin to promote tumor cell death.
    Authors: van der Sluis T, van Duikeren S, Huppelschoten S, Jordanova E, Beyranvand Nejad E, Sloots A, Boon L, Smit V, Welters M, Ossendorp F, van de Water B, Arens R, van der Burg S, Melief C
    Clin Cancer Res, 0;21(4):781-94.  0
  35. In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of a West Virginia chemical spill mixture involving 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol and propylene glycol phenyl ether.
    Authors: Han A, Fabyanic E, Miller J, Prediger M, Prince N, Mouch J, Boyd J
    Environ Monit Assess, 0;189(4):190.  0
  36. Identification of a negative regulatory role for spi-C in the murine B cell lineage.
    Authors: Li S, Solomon L, Fulkerson P, DeKoter R
    J Immunol, 0;194(8):3798-807.  0
  37. Integrative genomics identified RFC3 as an amplified candidate oncogene in esophageal adenocarcinoma.
    Authors: Lockwood W, Thu K, Lin L, Pikor L, Chari R, Lam W, Beer D
    Clin Cancer Res, 0;18(7):1936-46.  0
  38. A Gene Expression Signature Associated with Overall Survival in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Suggests a New Treatment Strategy.
    Authors: Gillet J, Andersen J, Madigan J, Varma S, Bagni R, Powell K, Burgan W, Wu C, Calcagno A, Ambudkar S, Thorgeirsson S, Gottesman M
    Mol Pharmacol, 0;89(2):263-72.  0
  39. Regulation of bovine pyruvate carboxylase mRNA and promoter expression by thermal stress.
    Authors: White H, Koser S, Donkin S
    J Anim Sci, 0;90(9):2979-87.  0
  40. Prothymosin-alpha interacts with mutant huntingtin and suppresses its cytotoxicity in cell culture.
    Authors: Dong G, Callegari E, Gloeckner C, Ueffing M, Wang H
    J Biol Chem, 0;287(2):1279-89.  0
  41. Synergistic effect of Ebselen and gamma radiation on breast cancer cells.
    Authors: Thabet N, Moustafa E
    Int J Radiat Biol, 0;93(8):784-792.  0
  42. Identification of Chemical Compounds That Inhibit the Function of Glutamyl-tRNA Synthetase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
    Authors: Hu Y, Guerrero E, Keniry M, Manrrique J, Bullard J
    J Biomol Screen, 0;20(9):1160-70.  0
  43. Anticancer and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Ganoderma lucidum Extract Effects on Melanoma and Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Treatment.
    Authors: Barbieri A, Quagliariello V, Del Vecchio V, Falco M, Luciano A, Amruthraj N, Nasti G, Ottaiano A, Berretta M, Iaffaioli R, Arra C
    Nutrients, 0;9(3):.  0
  44. An easy method for bacterial expression and purification of wild-type and mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1).
    Authors: Tachu B, Wusten K, Garza M, Wille H, Tamguney G
    Protein Expr Purif, 0;134(0):63-71.  0
  45. Characterization of CM572, a Selective Irreversible Partial Agonist of the Sigma-2 Receptor with Antitumor Activity.
    Authors: Nicholson H, Comeau A, Mesangeau C, McCurdy C, Bowen W
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 0;354(2):203-12.  0
  46. Imidazolium salts as small-molecule urinary bladder exfoliants in a murine model.
    Authors: Wagers P, Tiemann K, Shelton K, Kofron W, Panzner M, Wooley K, Youngs W, Hunstad D
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 0;59(9):5494-502.  0
  47. Can mesenchymal stem cells pretreated with platelet-rich plasma modulate tissue remodeling in a rat with burned skin?
    Authors: Hosni Ahmed H, Rashed L, Mahfouz S, Elsayed Hussein R, Alkaffas M, Mostafa S, Abusree A
    Biochem Cell Biol, 0;95(5):537-548.  0


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