DNA Damage Repair Enzymes are necessary for the repair of errors introduced during DNA replication or recombination or as a result of treatment with exogenous genotoxic agents. These enzymes can be used in vitro to detect specific forms of DNA damage or for repair assays. The DNA damage repair substrates are oligonucleotides that contain specific mutations which are recognized and cleaved by some of the following DNA repair enzymes. These substrates can serve as positive controls for DNA repair assays.
DNA Damage Repair Enzymes
E. coli Endonuclease III (Catalog # 4045-01K-EB; 4045-05K-EB) Specificity: Releases bases damaged by UV light, ionizing radiation, osmium tetroxide, or acid. Catalyzes the excision of cis- and trans- thymine glycol, 5,6-dihydrothymine, 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine, 5-hydroxy-5-methylhydantoin, 6-hydroxy-5,6-dihydropyrimidines, 5-hydroxycytosine and 5-hydroxyuracil, 5-hydroxy-6-hydrothymine, 5,6-dihydrouracil, 5-hydroxy-6-hydrouracil, AP sites, uracil glycol, methyltartronylurea, alloxan, and urea. Research Application: Radiation, oxidation, and UV damage
E. coli Fpg (Catalog # 4040-100-EB) Specificity: Catalyzes the excision of multiple forms of damaged bases, including 8-oxoguanine, 5-hydroxycytosine, 5-hydroxyuracil, aflatoxin-bound imidazole ring-opened guanine, imidazole ring-opened N-2-aminofluorene-C8-guanine, and open ring forms of 7-methylguanine. Research Application: Radiation and oxidative damage
E. coli MutY DNA Glycosylase (Catalog # 4000-500-EB) Specificity: Acts with Fpg to prevent the potentially mutagenic consequences of 8-oxo-dG lesions. Catalyzes the removal of adenine from 8-oxo-dG:A mispairs to initiate base excision repair. Research Application: 8-oxo-dG:A mismatches and oxidative damage
Human OGG1 (Catalog # 4130-100-EB) Specificity: Catalyzes the removal of 8-oxoguanine and DNA-containing formamidopyrimidine moieties. 8-oxoguanine mispairs with adenine during replication, and gives rise to G:C to T:A transversions. Research Application: Radiation and oxidative damage
PARP High Specific Activity(Catalog # 4668-100-01; 4668-500-01) Specificity: Modifies proteins post-translationally by poly ADP ribosylation using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) as a substrate. Poly ADP ribosylation of proteins occurs by the addition of an ADP-ribose to glutamic acid residues. Research Application: Assessment of damaged DNA, measurement of PARP inhibition, identification of PARP inhibitors or activators
M. thermoautotrophicum TDG (Catalog # 4070-500-EB) Specificity: Recognizes T:G mismatches in duplex DNA and cleaves the strand with the T, while the opposite strand is not cleaved. It also recognizes G:G mismatches if at least one of the neighboring bases is an adenine or a thymine and nicks one strand or the other. Research Application: T:G, G:G mismatches and deamination of 5-methyl-cytosine