|Detection of Human Neuropilin‑1 by Western Blot. Western blot shows lysates of MDA‑MB‑231 human breast cancer cell line and human placenta tissue. PVDF membrane was probed with 1 µg/mL of Sheep Anti-Human Neuropilin‑1 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF3870) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Sheep IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF016). A specific band was detected for Neuropilin‑1 at approximately 130 kDa (as indicated). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 1.|
|Detection of Neuropilin‑1 in HUVEC Human Cells by Flow Cytometry. HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cells were stained with Sheep Anti-Human Neuropilin‑1 Antigen Affinity‑purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF3870, filled histogram) or control antibody (Catalog # 5-001-A, open histogram), followed by NorthernLights™ 637-conjugated Anti-Sheep IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # NL011).|
|Neuropilin-1 in Human Pancreatic Cancer Tissue. Neuropilin-1 was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human pancreatic cancer tissue using Sheep Anti-Human Neuropilin-1 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF3870) at 10 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Before incubation with the primary antibody tissue was subjected to heat-induced epitope retrieval using Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic (Catalog # CTS013). Tissue was stained using the Anti-Sheep HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS019) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific labeling was localized to the cytoplasm and plasma membrane of cancer cells. View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.|
Neuropilin-1 (Npn-1, previously neuropilin; also CD304/BDCA4) is a 130-140 kDa type I transmembrane (TM) glycoprotein that regulates axon guidance and angiogenesis (1-4). The full-length 923 amino acid (aa) human Npn-1 contains a 623 aa extracellular domain (ECD) that shows 92-95% aa identity with mouse, rat, bovine, and canine Npn-1 (3, 4). The ECD contains two N-terminal CUB domains (termed a1a2), two domains with homology to coagulation factors V and VIII (b1b2) and a MAM (meprin) domain (c). C-terminally divergent splice variants with 704, 644, 609, and 551 aa lack the MAM and TM domains and are demonstrated or presumed to be soluble antagonists (1, 5-7). A 906 aa form lacks a TM segment, but secretion has not been found (8). The sema domains of Class III secreted semaphorins such as Sema3A bind Npn-1 a1a2 (9). Heparin, the heparin-binding forms of VEGF (VEGF165, VEGF-B, and VEGF-E), PlGF (PlGF‑2), and the C-terminus of Sema3 bind the b1b2 region (9, 10). Npn-1 and Npn-2 share 48% aa identity within the ECD and can form homo- and hetero-oligomers via interaction of their MAM domains (1). Neuropilins show partially overlapping expression in neuronal and endothelial cells during development (1, 2). Both neuropilins act as co-receptors with plexins, mainly plexin A3 and A4, to bind class III semaphorins that mediate axon repulsion (11). However, only Npn-1 binds Sema3A, and only Npn-2 binds Sema3F (1). Both are co-receptors with VEGF R2 (also called KDR or Flk-1) for VEGF165 binding (1). Sema3A signaling can be blocked by VEGF165, which has higher affinity for Npn-1 (12). Npn-1 is preferentially expressed in arteries during development or those undergoing remodeling (1, 2). Npn-1 is also expressed on dendritic cells and mediates DC-induced T cell proliferation (13).
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