Detection of Human Progranulin/PGRN by Western Blot.
Western blot shows lysates of HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. PVDF membrane was probed with 1 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human Progranulin/PGRN Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF2420) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF019). A specific band was detected for Progranulin/PGRN at approximately 80 kDa (as indicated). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 1.
Progranulin in Human Breast Cancer Tissue.
Progranulin was detected in paraffin-embedded sections of human breast cancer tissue using Goat Anti-Human Progranulin Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF2420) at 1.7 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained using the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.
Western Blot Shows Human Progranulin/PGRN Specificity by Using Knockout Cell Line.
Western blot shows lysates of HEK293T human embryonic kidney parental cell line and Progranulin knockout HEK293T cell line (KO). PVDF membrane was probed with 1 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human Progranulin/PGRN Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF2420) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF017). A specific band was detected for Progranulin/PGRN at approximately 80 kDa (as indicated) in the parental HEK293T cell line, but is not detectable in knockout HEK293T cell line. GAPDH (Catalog # AF5718) is shown as a loading control. This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 1.
Preparation and Storage
Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
Reconstitution Buffer Available
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Progranulin, also known as acrogranin, PC cell-derived growth factor (PCDGF) and epithelin/granulin precursor, is a ubiquitously expressed, 88 kDa, secreted glycoprotein (1‑3). Structurally, it does not belong to any of the well-established growth factor families (4). Human Progranulin is 593 amino acids (aa) in length and contains a 17 aa signal sequence and 5 potential sites for N-linked glycosylation (Swiss Prot # P28799). It has a highly repetitive organization, containing seven tandem copies of a 55-57 aa consensus motif that contains 12 conserved cysteine residues: VXCX5-6CX5CCX8CCX6CCXDX2HCCPX4CX5-6CX2 (1). There is one alternate splice form for human Progranulin. This has a deletion of aa corresponding to aa 377-531 of the standard form. Progranulin is secreted as a full length form (2, 4), and may undergo proteolysis leading to the release of numerous peptides made from the seven tandem repeats, called the granulins (5-7). Human Progranulin shares 75% aa sequence identity with mouse and rat Progranulin. Progranulin is involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation, as well as differentiation, development, and pathological processes (4). It has been isolated as a differentially expressed gene during mesothelial differentiation (8), macrophage development (9), the development of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis (10), sexual differentiation of the brain (11), and has also been shown to be a mediator of cartilage proliferation and of wound response and tissue repair (4, 12 13). High levels of Progranulin expression have been found to be associated with several human cancers and are believed to contribute to tumorigenesis in breast cancer, clear cell renal carcinoma, invasive ovarian carcinoma, glioblastoma, adipocyte teratoma, and multiple myeloma (4-5, 12, 14-19). In addition, mutations in the Progranulin gene are a cause of frontotemporal dementia, and increased expression of Progranulin is seen in activated microglia in many neurodegenerative diseases including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, motor neuron disease and Alzheimer's disease (20). Mutations in Progranulin causing neurodegenerative disease indicate that Progranulin is important for neuronal survival (20).
Plowman, G.D.et al. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267:13073.
Zhou, J. et al. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268:10863.
Liu, Y. et al. (2007) BMC Cancer 7:22.
Xu, K. et al. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282:11347.
Davidson, B. et al. (2004) Cancer 100:2139.
Zanocco-Marani, T. et al. (1999) Cancer Res. 59:5331.
Lu, R. and G. Serrero (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:3993.
Sun, X. et al. (2004) Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 30:510.
Barreda, D.R. et al. (2004) Dev. Comp. Immunol. 28:727.
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products.
The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed,
but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Submit a review and receive a $25US/€18/£15/$25CAN amazon gift card if you include an image - $10US/€7/£6/$10CAN Amazon card for reviews without an image. Limited to verified customers in USA, Canada and Europe.