Human Thioredoxin-1 Antibody

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
MAB1970-100
MAB1970-SP
Human Thioredoxin-1 Antibody in Western Blot
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Human Thioredoxin-1 Antibody Summary

Species Reactivity
Human
Specificity
Detects human Thioredoxin‑1 in direct ELISAs.
Source
Monoclonal Mouse IgG1 Clone # 763629
Purification
Protein A or G purified from hybridoma culture supernatant
Immunogen
E. coli-derived recombinant human Thioredoxin‑1
Met1-Val105
Accession # P10599
Formulation
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
Label
Unconjugated

Applications

Recommended Concentration
Sample
Western Blot
2 µg/mL
See below
Immunocytochemistry
3-25 µg/mL
See below

Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.

Data Examples

Western Blot Detection  of Human Thioredoxin‑1 by Western Blot. View Larger

Detection of Human Thioredoxin‑1 by Western Blot. Western blot shows lysates of HEK293T human embryonic kidney cell line, HeLa human cervical epithelial carcinoma cell line, and MCF‑7 human breast cancer cell line. PVDF membrane was probed with 2 µg/mL of Mouse Anti-Human Thioredoxin‑1 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB1970) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Mouse IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF018). A specific band was detected for Thioredoxin‑1 at approximately 12 kDa (as indicated). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 1.

Immunocytochemistry Thioredoxin‑1  in HeLa Human Cell Line. View Larger

Thioredoxin‑1 in HeLa Human Cell Line. Thioredoxin‑1 was detected in immersion fixed HeLa human cervical epithelial carcinoma cell line using Mouse Anti-Human Thioredoxin‑1 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB1970) at 3 µg/mL for 3 hours at room temperature. Cells were stained using the NorthernLights™ 557-conjugated Anti-Mouse IgG Secondary Antibody (red; Catalog # NL007) and counterstained with DAPI (blue). Specific staining was localized to cytoplasm. View our protocol for Fluorescent ICC Staining of Cells on Coverslips.

Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.

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Preparation and Storage

Reconstitution
Reconstitute at 0.5 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
Reconstitution Buffer Available
Reconstitution Buffer 1 (PBS)
Catalog #
Availability
Size / Price
Qty
RB01
Shipping
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Background: Thioredoxin-1

Thioredoxins (Trxs) are a group of small ubiquitous proteins in all living cells that are key regulators of cellular redox balance (1, 2). The mammalian Trx family has three members. The Trx-1, which is a secreted and cellular protein, the mitochondria-specific Trx-2, and the Trx-like cytosolic protein p32TrxL (3-5). The active site of mammalian Trxs contains two cysteines in the conserved sequence -Y-C-G-P-C-K-. In Trx-1 the conserved cysteine residues are in positions 32 and 35, respectively. Trxs exist either in a reduced or in an oxidized state when the two cysteines at the active site form an intramolecular disulfide bridge. NADPH and the flavoprotein thioredoxin reductase can convert the oxidized Trx into the reduced Trx. Trx-1 is the only extracellular occurring thioredoxin, and is secreted by lymphocytes, hepatocytes, fibroblasts, and several tumor cells. Plasma concentrations of Trx-1 are up to 6 nM (6). In cells, Trx-1 is localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. Small amounts have been detected in the nucleus and in association with the outside surface of the cells. Expression of Trx-1 is increased under various stress conditions such as hypoxia, elevated hydrogen peroxide concentrations, photochemical oxidative stress, and viral and bacterial infections. Biological functions of Trx-1 include growth factor activity, antioxidant properties, a cofactor that provides reducing equivalents, and transcriptional regulation (1, 2). The synovial tissue of rheumatoid arthritis patients produces increased levels of Trx-1 under oxidative stress conditions, and a correlation exists between the plasma levels of Trx-1 and the severity of the disease, making Trx-1 a biomarker for this pathological condition (7, 8).

References
  1. Holmgren, A. (1985) Annu. Rev. Biochem. 54:237.
  2. Powis, G. and W.R. Monfort (2001) Annu. Rev. Pharm. Toxicol. 41:269.
  3. Deiss, L.P. and A. Kimchi (1991) Science 252:117.
  4. Spyrou, G. et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272:2936.
  5. Miranda-Vizuete, A. et al. (1998) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 243:284.
  6. Nakamura, H. et al. (1997) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 15:147.
  7. Mourice, M.M. et al. (1999) Arthritis Rheum. 42:2430.
  8. Jikimoto, T. et al. (2001) Mol. Immunol. 38:765.
Entrez Gene IDs
7295 (Human)
Alternate Names
Thioredoxin1; Thioredoxin-1; Trx1; TXN; TXN1

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Secondary Antibodies

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