Detection of Endoglin/CD105 in MS‑1 Mouse Cell Line by Flow Cytometry. |
MS‑1 mouse pancreatic islet endothelial cell line was stained with Rat Anti-Mouse Endoglin/CD105 PE‑conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB1320P, filled histogram) or isotype control antibody (Catalog # IC006P, open histogram). View our protocol for Staining Membrane-associated Proteins.
Endoglin (also known as CD105) is a 90 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein of the zona pellucida (ZP) family of proteins (1-3). Endoglin and betaglycan/T beta RIII are type III receptors for TGF beta superfamily ligands, sharing 71% amino acid (aa) identity within the transmembrane (TM) and cytoplasmic domains. Endoglin is highly expressed on proliferating vascular endothelial cells, chondrocytes, and syncytiotrophoblasts of term placenta, with lower amounts expressed on hematopoietic, mesenchymal, and neural crest stem cells, activated monocytes, and lymphoid and myeloid leukemic cells (2-5). Mouse Endoglin cDNA encodes 653 aa including a 26 aa signal sequence, a 555 aa extracellular domain (ECD) with an orphan domain and a two-part ZP domain, a TM domain, and a 47 aa cytoplasmic domain (1-3). A mouse isoform with a 35 aa cytoplasmic domain (S-endoglin) can oppose effects of long (L) Endoglin (6, 7). The mouse Endoglin ECD shares 69%, 84%, 62%, 63%, and 66% aa identity with human, rat, bovine, porcine, and canine Endoglin, respectively. Endoglin homodimers interact with TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 3 (but not TGF-beta 2) but only after binding T beta RII (8). Similarly, they interact with Activin-A and BMP-7 via activin type IIA or B receptors, and with BMP-2 via BMPR-1A/ALK-3 or BMPR-1B/ALK-6 (9). BMP-9, however, is reported to bind Endoglin directly (10). Endoglin modifies ligand-induced signaling in multiple ways. For example, expression of Endoglin can inhibit TGF-beta 1 signals but enhance BMP-7 signals in the same myoblast cell line (11). In endothelial cells, Endoglin inhibits T beta RI/ALK5 but enhances ALK1-mediated activation (12). Deletion of mouse Endoglin causes lethal vascular and cardiovascular defects, and human Endoglin haploinsufficiency can a cause the vascular disorder, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type I (13, 14). These abnormalities confirm the essential function of Endoglin in differentiation of smooth muscle, angiogenesis, and neovascularization (2-4, 12-14). In preeclampsia of pregnancy, high levels of proteolytically generated soluble Endoglin and VEGF R1 (sFlt-1), along with low Placental Growth Factor (PlGF), are pathogenic due to anti-angiogenic activity (15).
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