Recombinant and natural mouse, rat, canine and porcine TGF-beta 2.
Cross-reactivity observed with 1 or more available related molecules.Cross-species reactivity observed with 1 or more species tested.
No significant interference observed with available related molecules.
Intra-Assay Precision (Precision within an assay) Three samples of known concentration were tested on one plate to assess intra-assay precision
Inter-Assay Precision (Precision between assays) Three samples of a known concentration were tested in twenty separate
assays to assess inter-assay precision. Assays were performed by at
least three technicians using two lots of kit components
The recovery of TGF-beta 2 spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated.
Average % Recovery
Cell Culture Supernates (n=4)
Cell Lysates (n=2)
EDTA Plasma (n=4)
Heparin Plasma (n=4)
To assess the linearity of the assay, samples spiked with high
concentrations of TGF-beta 2 were serially diluted with Calibrator Diluent to
produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
Samples were diluted prior to assay.
Store the unopened product at 2 - 8 °C. Do not use past expiration date.
Background: TGF-beta 2
Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1, 2, and 3 (TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2, and TGF-beta 3) are highly pleiotropic cytokines that virtually all cell types secrete. TGF-beta molecules are proposed to act as cellular switches that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Targeted deletions of these genes in mice show that each TGF-beta isoform has some non-redundant functions: TGF-beta 1 is involved in hematopoiesis and endothelial differentiation; TGF-beta 2 affects development of cardiac, lung, craniofacial, limb, eye, ear, and urogenital systems; and TGF-beta 3 influences palatogenesis and pulmonary development. The full range of in vitro biological activities of TGF-beta 5 has not yet been explored. However, TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2, TGF-beta 3, and TGF-beta 5 have been found to be largely interchangeable in an inhibitory bioassay, and it is anticipated that TGF-beta 5 will show a spectrum of activities similar to the other TGF-beta family members. To date, the production of TGF-beta 5 has only been demonstrated in Xenopus.
TGF-beta ligands are initially synthesized as precursor proteins that undergo proteolytic cleavage. The mature segments form active ligand dimers via a disulfide-rich core consisting of the characteristic 'cysteine knot'. TGF-beta signaling begins with binding to a complex of the accessory receptor betaglycan (also known as TGF-beta RIII) and a type II serine/threonine kinase receptor termed TGF-beta RII. This receptor then phosphorylates and activates a type I serine/threonine kinase receptor, either ALK-1 or TGF-beta RI (also called ALK-5). The activated type I receptor phosphorylates and activates Smad proteins that regulate transcription. Use of other signaling pathways that are Smad-independent allows for distinct actions observed in response to TGF-beta in different contexts.
Refer to the product for complete assay procedure.
Bring all reagents and samples to room temperature before use. It is recommended that all samples, standards, and controls be assayed in duplicate.
Prepare all reagents, standard dilutions, and samples as directed in the product insert.
Remove excess microplate strips from the plate frame, return them to the foil pouch containing the desiccant pack, and reseal.
50 µL Assay Diluent
Add 50 µL of Assay Diluent to each well.
50 µL Standard, Control, or Sample
Add 50 µL of Standard, Control, or sample to each well. Cover with a plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 2 hours on a horizontal orbital microplate shaker.
Aspirate each well and wash, repeating the process 3 times for a total of 4 washes.
100 µL Conjugate
Add 100 µL of Conjugate to each well. Cover with a new plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 2 hours on the shaker.
Aspirate and wash 4 times.
100 µL Substrate Solution
Add 100 µL Substrate Solution to each well. Incubate at room temperature for 30 minutes on the benchtop. PROTECT FROM LIGHT.
100 µL Stop Solution
Add 100 µL of Stop Solution to each well. Read at 450 nm within 30 minutes. Set wavelength correction to 540 nm or 570 nm.
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products.
The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed,
but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
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