Mouse/Rat/Canine/Porcine TGF-beta 2 Quantikine ELISA Kit

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Mouse/Rat/Porcine/Canine TGF-beta 2 ELISA Standard Curve
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Product Details
Citations (13)
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Mouse/Rat/Canine/Porcine TGF-beta 2 Quantikine ELISA Kit Summary

Assay Type
Solid Phase Sandwich ELISA
96-well strip plate
Assay Length
4.5 hours
Sample Type & Volume Required Per Well
Cell Culture Supernates (25 uL), Cell Lysates (25 uL), Serum (13 uL), EDTA Plasma (13 uL), Heparin Plasma (13 uL)
4.26 pg/mL
Assay Range
12.5 - 800 pg/mL (Cell Culture Supernates, Cell Lysates, Serum, EDTA Plasma, Heparin Plasma)
Recombinant and natural mouse, rat, canine and porcine TGF-beta 2.
Cross-reactivity observed with 1 or more available related molecules.Cross-species reactivity observed with 1 or more species tested.
No significant interference observed with available related molecules.

Product Summary


Intra-Assay Precision (Precision within an assay) Three samples of known concentration were tested on one plate to assess intra-assay precision
Inter-Assay Precision (Precision between assays) Three samples of a known concentration were tested in twenty separate assays to assess inter-assay precision. Assays were performed by at least three technicians using two lots of kit components

Cell Culture Supernates, Cell Lysates, Serum, EDTA Plasma, Heparin Plasma

Intra-Assay Precision Inter-Assay Precision
Sample 1 2 3 1 2 3
n 20 20 20 20 20 20
Mean (pg/mL) 29 102 323 29.9 115 337
Standard Deviation 2.43 4.97 21 2.8 8.2 30.7
CV% 8.4 4.9 6.5 9.4 7.2 9.1


The recovery of TGF-beta 2 spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated.

Sample Type Average % Recovery Range %
Cell Culture Supernates (n=4) 92 80-102
Cell Lysates (n=2) 94 86-98
EDTA Plasma (n=4) 84 78-94
Heparin Plasma (n=4) 82 74-92
Serum (n=4) 98 85-114


To assess the linearity of the assay, samples spiked with high concentrations of TGF-beta 2 were serially diluted with Calibrator Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay. Samples were diluted prior to assay.
Mouse/Rat/Porcine/Canine TGF-beta 2 ELISA Linearity

Scientific Data

Mouse/Rat/Porcine/Canine TGF-beta 2 ELISA Standard Curve

Product Datasheets

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Preparation and Storage

The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Store the unopened product at 2 - 8 °C. Do not use past expiration date.

Background: TGF-beta 2

TGF-beta 2 (Transforming Growth Factor beta 2) is one of three closely related mammalian members of the large TGF-beta superfamily that share a characteristic cysteine knot structure (1-7). TGF-beta 1, 2 and 3 are encoded by separate genes, but are often called isoforms. They are highly pleiotropic cytokines that are proposed to act as cellular switches regulating processes such as immune function, proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (4-8). Mammalian TGF-beta 2 is secreted as a 395 amino acid (aa) proprotein that is processed by a furin-like convertase to generate an N-terminal latency-associated peptide (LAP, ~232 aa) and a C-terminal mature TGF-beta 2 (~112 aa) that remain associated via hydrogen bonding (9-13). Serine proteases such as plasmin, matrix metalloproteases, or thrombospondin-1, along with cofactors such as certain integrins, can dissociate LAP and release active TGF-beta 2 (11-14). In many types of cells, latent TGF-beta binding protein (LTBP) is covalently linked to the LAP homodimer prior to secretion. LTBP creates a large latent complex that is secreted, but may bind and localize to the extracellular matrix (10, 11). For TGF-beta isoforms, the latency components act as natural antagonists of TGF-beta activity, target TGF-beta to distinct tissues, and maintain a reservoir of TGF-beta (1). Mature mouse and rat TGF-beta 2 share 100% aa sequence identity, and share 97% aa identity with human, porcine, canine, equine and bovine TGF-beta 2. 

TGF-beta 2 signaling begins with binding to a complex of the accessory receptor betaglycan (also known as TGF-beta RIII) and the TGF-beta RII type II ser/thr kinase receptor (15). In contrast, TGF-beta 1 and 3 have higher affinity for TGF-beta RII and do not require betaglycan (15). TGF-beta RII then phosphorylates and activates another ser/thr kinase receptor, TGF-beta RI (also called activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) -5), or alternatively, ALK-1. The whole complex phosphorylates and activates Smad proteins that regulate transcription (1, 6, 15, 16). Differences in structure of the prodomains and mature sequences of TGF-beta isoforms, and use of Smad-independent signaling pathways, allow for disparate actions observed in response to different TGF-beta isoforms and contexts (1-3, 12, 13, 15, 16). 
Although many functions are overlapping, each TGF-beta isoform has some non-redundant functions. TGF-beta 2 plays a non-redundant role in human and mouse developmental heart valve remodeling, and mice with targeted deletions of TGF-beta 2 show defects in development of the cardiac system as well as lung, craniofacial, limb, eye, ear and urogenital systems (2, 7, 17, 28). TGF-beta 2 plays a unique positive regulatory role in hematopoiesis by enhancing Flt-3 signaling in hematopoietic progenitors (19). In humans, TGF-beta isoforms, especially TGF-beta 2, are identified as key factors in the progression of malignant glioma, gastric and ovarian cancer (8, 20-22). TGF-beta isoforms, particularly TGF-beta 2, suppress macrophage cytokine production and mucosal inflammatory responses in the developing intestine (23). In turn, macrophage LRP-1 can downregulate expression of TGF-beta 2 during vascular remodeling, which suppresses neo-intima formation (24).

Long Name:
Transforming Growth Factor beta 2
Entrez Gene IDs:
7042 (Human); 21808 (Mouse); 397084 (Porcine)
Alternate Names:
BSC-1 cell growth inhibitor; cetermin; Glioblastoma-derived T-cell suppressor factor; G-TSF; MGC116892; polyergin; TGFB2; TGFbeta 2; TGF-beta 2; TGF-beta2; TGF-beta-2; transforming growth factor beta-2; transforming growth factor, beta 2
⚠ WARNING: This product can expose you to chemicals including N,N-Dimethylforamide, which is known to the State of California to cause cancer. For more information, go to

Assay Procedure

Refer to the product for complete assay procedure.

Bring all reagents and samples to room temperature before use. It is recommended that all samples, standards, and controls be assayed in duplicate.
  1.   Prepare all reagents, standard dilutions, and samples as directed in the product insert.
  2.   Remove excess microplate strips from the plate frame, return them to the foil pouch containing the desiccant pack, and reseal.

  3. 50 µL Assay Diluent
  4.   Add 50 µL of Assay Diluent to each well.

  5. 50 µL Standard, Control, or Sample
  6.   Add 50 µL of Standard, Control, or sample to each well. Cover with a plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 2 hours on a horizontal orbital microplate shaker.
  7.   Aspirate each well and wash, repeating the process 3 times for a total of 4 washes.

  8. 100 µL Conjugate
  9.   Add 100 µL of Conjugate to each well. Cover with a new plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 2 hours on the shaker.
  10.   Aspirate and wash 4 times.

  11. 100 µL Substrate Solution
  12.   Add 100 µL Substrate Solution to each well. Incubate at room temperature for 30 minutes on the benchtop. PROTECT FROM LIGHT.

  13. 100 µL Stop Solution
  14.   Add 100 µL of Stop Solution to each well. Read at 450 nm within 30 minutes. Set wavelength correction to 540 nm or 570 nm.

Citations for Mouse/Rat/Canine/Porcine TGF-beta 2 Quantikine ELISA Kit

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

13 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. alpha1A Adrenoreceptor blockade attenuates myocardial infarction by modulating the integrin-linked kinase/TGF-beta/Smad signaling pathways
    Authors: NM Alrasheed, RB Alammari, TK Alshammari, MA Alamin, AO Alharbi, AS Alonazi, AF Bin Dayel, NM Alrasheed
    BMC cardiovascular disorders, 2023-03-24;23(1):153.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Serum
  2. Regenerative Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cell on Cartilage Damage in a Porcine Model
    Authors: Lin, S;Panthi, S;Hsuuw, Y;Chen, S;Huang, M;Sieber, M;Hsuuw, Y;
    Species: Porcine
    Sample Types: Serum
  3. Fibrillin-1 mutant mouse captures defining features of human primary open glaucoma including anomalous aqueous humor TGF beta-2
    Authors: MK Ko, JI Woo, JM Gonzalez, G Kim, L Sakai, J Peti-Peter, JA Kelber, YK Hong, JC Tan
    Oncogene, 2022-06-23;12(1):10623.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Aqueous Humor
  4. EZH2-mediated H3K27me3 promotes autoimmune hepatitis progression by regulating macrophage polarization
    Authors: G Chi, JH Pei, XQ Li
    International immunopharmacology, 2022-02-19;106(0):108612.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  5. Microglia-derived interleukin-10 accelerates post-intracerebral hemorrhage hematoma clearance by regulating CD36
    Authors: Q Li, X Lan, X Han, F Durham, J Wan, A Weiland, RC Koehler, J Wang
    Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 2021-02-13;94(0):437-457.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Tissue Homogenates
  6. Role of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor-induced interferon pathway signaling in the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma therapeutic response
    Authors: SP Korpela, TK Hinz, A Oweida, J Kim, J Calhoun, R Ferris, RA Nemenoff, SD Karam, ET Clambey, LE Heasley
    Journal of Translational Medicine, 2021-01-23;19(1):43.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  7. Analysis of structural components of decellularized scaffolds in renal fibrosis
    Authors: R Zhang, J Jiang, Y Yu, F Wang, N Gao, Y Zhou, X Wan, Z Wang, P Wei, J Mei
    Bioactive materials, 2021-01-16;6(7):2187-2197.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  8. GL261 luciferase-expressing cells elicit an anti-tumor immune response: an evaluation of murine glioma models
    Authors: VE Sanchez, JP Lynes, S Walbridge, X Wang, NA Edwards, AK Nwankwo, HP Sur, GA Dominah, A Obungu, N Adamstein, PK Dagur, D Maric, J Munasinghe, JD Heiss, EK Nduom
    Sci Rep, 2020-07-03;10(1):11003.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  9. De novo design of functional zwitterionic biomimetic material for immunomodulation
    Authors: B Li, Z Yuan, P Jain, HC Hung, Y He, X Lin, P McMullen, S Jiang
    Sci Adv, 2020-05-29;6(22):eaba0754.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  10. Evaluation of Neurosecretome from Mesenchymal Stem Cells Encapsulated in Silk Fibroin Hydrogels
    Authors: Y Martín-Mar, L Fernández-, MH Sanchez-Re, N Marí-Buyé, FJ Rojo, J Pérez-Rigu, M Ramos, GV Guinea, F Panetsos, D González-N
    Sci Rep, 2019-06-19;9(1):8801.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  11. TGF-?3 Promotes MUC5AC Hyper-Expression by Modulating Autophagy Pathway in Airway Epithelium
    Authors: Y Zhang, H Tang, X Yuan, Q Ran, X Wang, Q Song, L Zhang, Y Qiu, X Wang
    EBioMedicine, 2018-07-08;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: BALF
  12. TGF-beta3-expressing CD4+CD25(-)LAG3+ regulatory T cells control humoral immune responses.
    Authors: Okamura T, Sumitomo S, Morita K, Iwasaki Y, Inoue M, Nakachi S, Komai T, Shoda H, Miyazaki J, Fujio K, Yamamoto K
    Nat Commun, 2015-02-19;6(0):6329.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  13. Resolvin D1 and lipoxin A4 improve alveolarization and normalize septal wall thickness in a neonatal murine model of hyperoxia-induced lung injury.
    Authors: Martin C, Zaman M, Gilkey C, Salguero M, Hasturk H, Kantarci A, Van Dyke T, Freedman S
    PLoS ONE, 2014-06-03;9(6):e98773.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Tissue Homogenates


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