Mouse/Rat/Canine/Porcine TGF-beta 2 Quantikine ELISA Kit Summary
Cell Culture Supernates, Cell Lysates, Serum, EDTA Plasma, Heparin Plasma
|Intra-Assay Precision||Inter-Assay Precision|
The recovery of TGF-beta 2 spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated.
|Sample Type||Average % Recovery||Range %|
|Cell Culture Supernates (n=4)||92||80-102|
|Cell Lysates (n=2)||94||86-98|
|EDTA Plasma (n=4)||84||78-94|
|Heparin Plasma (n=4)||82||74-92|
Mouse/Rat/Porcine/Canine TGF-beta 2 ELISA Standard Curve
Preparation and Storage
Background: TGF-beta 2
Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1, 2, and 3 (TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2, and TGF-beta 3) are highly pleiotropic cytokines that virtually all cell types secrete. TGF-beta molecules are proposed to act as cellular switches that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Targeted deletions of these genes in mice show that each TGF-beta isoform has some non-redundant functions: TGF-beta 1 is involved in hematopoiesis and endothelial differentiation; TGF-beta 2 affects development of cardiac, lung, craniofacial, limb, eye, ear, and urogenital systems; and TGF-beta 3 influences palatogenesis and pulmonary development. The full range of in vitro biological activities of TGF-beta 5 has not yet been explored. However, TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2, TGF-beta 3, and TGF-beta 5 have been found to be largely interchangeable in an inhibitory bioassay, and it is anticipated that TGF-beta 5 will show a spectrum of activities similar to the other TGF-beta family members. To date, the production of TGF-beta 5 has only been demonstrated in Xenopus.
TGF-beta ligands are initially synthesized as precursor proteins that undergo proteolytic cleavage. The mature segments form active ligand dimers via a disulfide-rich core consisting of the characteristic 'cysteine knot'. TGF-beta signaling begins with binding to a complex of the accessory receptor betaglycan (also known as TGF-beta RIII) and a type II serine/threonine kinase receptor termed TGF-beta RII. This receptor then phosphorylates and activates a type I serine/threonine kinase receptor, either ALK-1 or TGF-beta RI (also called ALK-5). The activated type I receptor phosphorylates and activates Smad proteins that regulate transcription. Use of other signaling pathways that are Smad-independent allows for distinct actions observed in response to TGF-beta in different contexts.
Assay ProcedureRefer to the product
- Prepare all reagents, standard dilutions, and samples as directed in the product insert.
- Remove excess microplate strips from the plate frame, return them to the foil pouch containing the desiccant pack, and reseal.
- Add 50 µL of Assay Diluent to each well.
- Add 50 µL of Standard, Control, or sample to each well. Cover with a plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 2 hours on a horizontal orbital microplate shaker.
- Aspirate each well and wash, repeating the process 3 times for a total of 4 washes.
- Add 100 µL of Conjugate to each well. Cover with a new plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 2 hours on the shaker.
- Aspirate and wash 4 times.
- Add 100 µL Substrate Solution to each well. Incubate at room temperature for 30 minutes on the benchtop. PROTECT FROM LIGHT.
- Add 100 µL of Stop Solution to each well. Read at 450 nm within 30 minutes. Set wavelength correction to 540 nm or 570 nm.
Citations for Mouse/Rat/Canine/Porcine TGF-beta 2 Quantikine ELISA Kit
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Citations: Showing 1 - 3
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TGF-?3 Promotes MUC5AC Hyper-Expression by Modulating Autophagy Pathway in Airway Epithelium
Authors: Y Zhang, H Tang, X Yuan, Q Ran, X Wang, Q Song, L Zhang, Y Qiu, X Wang
Sample Types: BALF
TGF-beta3-expressing CD4+CD25(-)LAG3+ regulatory T cells control humoral immune responses.
Authors: Okamura T, Sumitomo S, Morita K, Iwasaki Y, Inoue M, Nakachi S, Komai T, Shoda H, Miyazaki J, Fujio K, Yamamoto K
Nat Commun, 2015;6(0):6329.
Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
Resolvin D1 and lipoxin A4 improve alveolarization and normalize septal wall thickness in a neonatal murine model of hyperoxia-induced lung injury.
Authors: Martin C, Zaman M, Gilkey C, Salguero M, Hasturk H, Kantarci A, Van Dyke T, Freedman S
PLoS ONE, 2014;9(6):e98773.
Sample Types: Tissue Homogenates
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