|WISP‑1/CCN4 in Mouse Embryo. WISP‑1/CCN4 was detected in immersion fixed frozen sections of mouse embryo (13 d.p.c.) using 15 µg/mL Sheep Anti-Mouse WISP‑1/CCN4 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF1680) overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained with the Anti-Sheep HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS019) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific labeling was localized to developing epithelial cells in duodenum. View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Frozen Tissue Sections.|
Mouse WISP-1 (Wnt-induced secreted protein-1; also named CNN4) is a 40 kDa, secreted, heparin-binding glycoprotein that is a member of the CCN (or CTGF/Cyr61/Nov) cysteine-rich protein family (1‑6). It is synthesized as a 367 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a series of structural homology modules. Following a 22 aa signal sequence, there is a 68 aa IGFBP-like domain (aa 53‑120), a 66 aa von Willebrand factor type C (VWC) module (aa 121‑186), a 41 aa TSP type I domain (aa 220‑260) and a 75 aa, C-terminal cysteine knot motif (aa 273‑347) (1, 6). The VWC module is associated with protein-protein interaction, the TSP domain binds sulfated glycoconjugates, and the cysteine knot mediates dimerization and receptor binding (4). It is likely that WISP-1 normally circulates as an 80 kDa homodimer (2). Multiple splice forms are reported for human WISP-1, but none for rodent (7‑9). Mature mouse WISP-1 is 98%, 84% and 85% aa identical to rat, canine and human WISP-1, respectively. WISP-1 is expressed by fibroblasts and osteoblasts, and may contribute to fracture healing by promoting bone cell formation (1, 10, 11).
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