Rat TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR Biotinylated Antibody
Rat TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR Biotinylated Antibody Summary
Accession # O54947
Rat TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR Sandwich Immunoassay
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Preparation and Storage
- 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
- 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
- 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
KIM-1 (Kidney-injury molecule-1; also TIM-1 and HAVCR) is a 50 - 80 kDa, variably glycosylated, type I transmembrane glycoprotein that is a member of the TIM family of immunoglobulin superfamily molecules (1 - 5). This gene family is involved in the regulation of Th1 and Th2-cell-mediated immunity. In mouse, there are eight known TIM/KIM genes (# 1 - 8) vs. only three genes in human (# 1, 3, 4) (1, 2, 5). It is unknown if the rat genome exactly parallels that of mouse. Rat KIM-1 is synthesized as a 307 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 21 aa signal sequence, a 214 aa extracellular domain (ECD), a 21 aa transmembrane segment and a 51 aa cytoplasmic domain (4). The ECD contains one V-type Ig-like domain and a mucin region characterized by multiple Thr-Ser-Pro motifs. The mucin region may undergo extensive O-linked glycosylation. The mouse KIM-1 gene is highly polymorphic and this may be reflected in rat (4, 6). In human, TIM-1 is known to circulate as a soluble form. It undergoes constitutive cleavage by an undefined MMP, releasing an 85 kDa soluble molecule (7). A similar process has now been described in rat (8). The ECD of rat KIM-1 is 50% and 81% aa identical to human and mouse KIM-1 ECD, respectively. The only two reported ligands for KIM-1 are TIM-4 and the hepatitis A virus (9, 10). However, others are believed to exist, and based on the ligand for TIM-3, one might be an S-type lectin (11). KIM-1 is found on CD4+ T cells and proximal renal tubular cells (4, 12). KIM-1 ligation induces T cell proliferation and promotes cytokine production (1, 11). In particular, it induces IL-4 production, and requires the KIM-1 cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphorylation motif (12). Alternatively, KIM-1 activation of TIM-4 induces cell cycle arrest (13).
- Meyers, J.H. et al. (2005) Trends Mol. Med. 11:1471.
- Kuchroo, V.K. et al. (2003) Nat. Rev. Immunol. 3:454.
- Mariat, C. et al. (2005) Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 360:1681.
- Ichimura, T. et al. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273:4135.
- Kuchroo, V.K. et al. (2006) Adv. Immunol. 91:227.
- McIntire, J.J. et al. (2001) Nat. Immunol. 2:1109.
- Bailly, V. et al. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277:39739.
- Vaidya, V.S. et al. (2006) Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 290:F517.
- Feigelstock, D. et al. (1998) J. Virol. 72:6621.
- Zhu, C. et al. (2005) Nat. Immunol. 6:1245.
- Meyers, J.H. et al. (2005) Nat. Immunol. 6:455.
- de Souza, A.J. et al. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:17113.
- Mesri, M. et al. (2006) Int. Immunol. 18:473.
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