Recombinant Mouse TGF-beta 1 Protein

(19 citations)   
  • Purity
    >95%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.01 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
  • Activity
    Measured by its ability to inhibit the IL-4-dependent proliferation of HT‑2 mouse T cells. Tsang, M. et al. (1995) Cytokine 7:389. The ED50 for this effect is typically 0.04-0.2 ng/mL.
  • Source
    Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line, CHO-derived Ala279-Ser390
  • Accession #
  • N-terminal Sequence
    Analysis
    Ala279
  • Predicted Molecular Mass
    12.8 (monomer) kDa
  • SDS-PAGE
    10.5 kDa, reducing conditions
Carrier Free
What does CF mean?
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
What formulation is right for me?
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
7666-MB
 
7666-MB/CF
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in HCl with BSA as a carrier protein.
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in HCl.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 50 μg/mL in 4 mM HCl containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 50 μg/mL in 4 mM HCl.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: TGF-beta 1

TGF-beta 1 (transforming growth factor beta 1) is one of three closely related mammalian members of the large TGF‑ beta superfamily that share a characteristic cystine knot structure (1‑7). TGF‑ beta 1, -2 and -3 are highly pleiotropic cytokines that are proposed to act as cellular switches that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation and epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (1‑4). Each TGF‑ beta isoform has some non‑redundant functions; for TGF‑ beta 1, mice with targeted deletion show defects in hematopoiesis and endothelial differentiation, and die of overwhelming inflammation (2). Human or mouse TGF‑ beta 1 cDNA encodes a 390 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 29 aa signal peptide and a 361 aa proprotein (8). A furin‑like convertase processes the proprotein to generate an N‑terminal 249 aa latency‑associated peptide (LAP) and a C‑terminal 112 aa mature TGF‑ beta 1 (8, 9). Disulfide‑linked homodimers of LAP and TGF‑ beta 1 remain non‑covalently associated after secretion, forming the small latent TGF‑ beta 1 complex (8‑10). Covalent linkage of LAP to one of three latent TGF‑ beta binding proteins (LTBPs) creates a large latent complex that may interact with the extracellular matrix (9, 10). TGF‑ beta is activated from latency by pathways that include actions of the protease plasmin, matrix metalloproteases, thrombospondin 1 and a subset of integrins (10). Mature mouse TGF‑ beta 1 shares 99‑100% aa sequence identity with human, rat, equine, porcine, canine and bovine TGF‑ beta 1. It demonstrates cross‑species activity (1). TGF‑ beta 1 signaling begins with high‑affinity binding to a type II ser/thr kinase receptor termed TGF‑ beta  RII. This receptor then phosphorylates and activates a second ser/thr kinase receptor, TGF‑ beta  RI (also called activin receptor‑like kinase (ALK) ‑5), or alternatively, ALK‑1. This complex phosphorylates and activates Smad proteins that regulate transcription (3, 11, 12). Contributions of the accessory receptors betaglycan (also known as TGF‑ beta  RIII) and endoglin, or use of Smad‑independent signaling pathways, allow for disparate actions observed in response to TGF‑ beta in different contexts (11).

  • References:
    1. Derynck, R. and K. Miyazono (2008) Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 29.
    2. Dunker, N. and K. Krieglstein (2000) Eur. J. Biochem. 267:6982.
    3. Wahl, S.M. (2006) Immunol. Rev. 213:213.
    4. Chang, H. et al. (2002) Endocr. Rev. 23:787.
    5. Lin, J.S. et al. (2006) Reproduction 132:179.
    6. Hinck, A.P. et al. (1996) Biochemistry 35:8517.
    7. Mittl, P.R.E. et al. (1996) Protein Sci. 5:1261.
    8. Derynck, R. et al. (1985) Nature 316:701.
    9. Miyazono, K. et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263:6407.
    10. Oklu, R. and R. Hesketh (2000) Biochem. J. 352:601.
    11. de Caestecker, M. et al. (2004) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 15:1.
    12. Zuniga, J.E. et al. (2005) J. Mol. Biol. 354:1052.
  • Long Name:
    Transforming Growth Factor beta 1
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    7040 (Human); 21803 (Mouse); 59086 (Rat); 397078 (Porcine); 100033900 (Equine)
  • Alternate Names:
    CEDLAP; DPD1; latency-associated peptide; TGFB; TGFB1; TGF-beta 1 protein; TGFbeta; TGF-beta-1; transforming growth factor beta-1; transforming growth factor, beta 1
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

Showing Results 1 - 10 of 19
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. IL-1 signaling modulates activation of STAT transcription factors to antagonize retinoic acid signaling and control the TH17 cell-iTreg cell balance.
    Authors: Basu R, Whitley S, Bhaumik S, Zindl C, Schoeb T, Benveniste E, Pear W, Hatton R, Weaver C
    Nat Immunol, 2015;16(3):286-95.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  2. ShcA regulates late stages of T cell development and peripheral CD4+ T cell numbers.
    Authors: Buckley M, Trampont P, Arandjelovic S, Fond A, Juncadella I, Ravichandran K
    J Immunol, 2015;194(4):1665-76.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  3. Dendritic cell SIRT1-HIF1alpha axis programs the differentiation of CD4+ T cells through IL-12 and TGF-beta1.
    Authors: Liu G, Bi Y, Xue L, Zhang Y, Yang H, Chen X, Lu Y, Zhang Z, Liu H, Wang X, Wang R, Chu Y, Yang R
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2015;112(9):E957-65.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  4. Regulatory T cell reprogramming toward a Th2-cell-like lineage impairs oral tolerance and promotes food allergy.
    Authors: Noval Rivas M, Burton O, Wise P, Charbonnier L, Georgiev P, Oettgen H, Rachid R, Chatila T
    Immunity, 2015;42(3):512-23.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  5. Beclin 1 regulates neuronal transforming growth factor-beta signaling by mediating recycling of the type I receptor ALK5.
    Authors: O'Brien C, Bonanno L, Zhang H, Wyss-Coray T
    Mol Neurodegener, 2015;10(1):69.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  6. Myocardin-related transcription factors control the motility of epicardium-derived cells and the maturation of coronary vessels.
    Authors: Trembley M, Velasquez L, de Mesy Bentley K, Small E
    Development, 2015;142(1):21-30.
  7. Novel mechanism of macrophage-mediated metastasis revealed in a zebrafish model of tumor development.
    Authors: Wang J, Cao Z, Zhang X, Nakamura M, Sun M, Hartman J, Harris R, Sun Y, Cao Y
    Cancer Res, 2015;75(2):306-15.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  8. Itk signals promote neuroinflammation by regulating CD4+ T-cell activation and trafficking.
    Authors: Kannan A, Kim D, August A, Bynoe M
    J Neurosci, 2015;35(1):221-33.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  9. A functional polymorphism of Ptpn22 is associated with type 1 diabetes in the BioBreeding rat.
    Authors: Sarmiento J, Wallis R, Ning T, Marandi L, Chao G, Veillette A, Lernmark A, Paterson A, Poussier P
    J Immunol, 2015;194(2):615-29.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  10. Attenuation of experimental colitis in glutathione peroxidase 1 and catalase double knockout mice through enhancing regulatory T cell function.
    Authors: Kim H, Lee A, Choi E, Kie J, Lim W, Lee H, Moon B, Seoh J
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(4):e95332.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  11. IL-21 induces IL-22 production in CD4+ T cells.
    Authors: Yeste A, Mascanfroni I, Nadeau M, Burns E, Tukpah A, Santiago A, Wu C, Patel B, Kumar D, Quintana F
    Nat Commun, 2014;5(0):3753.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  12. Myostatin stimulates, not inihibits, C2C12 myoblast proliferation.
    Authors: Rodgers B, Wiedeback B, Hoversten K, Jackson M, Walker R, Thompson T
    Endocrinology, 2014;155(3):670-5.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: whole cells
    Application: Bioassay
  13. Cell-extrinsic CTLA4-mediated regulation of dendritic cell maturation depends on STAT3.
    Authors: Kowalczyk A, D'Souza C, Zhang L
    Eur J Immunol, 2014;44(4):1143-55.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  14. Laminin alpha1 regulates age-related mesangial cell proliferation and mesangial matrix accumulation through the TGF-beta pathway.
    Authors: Ning L, Kurihara H, de Vega S, Ichikawa-Tomikawa N, Xu Z, Nonaka R, Kazuno S, Yamada Y, Miner J, Arikawa-Hirasawa E
    Am J Pathol, 2014;184(6):1683-94.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: N/A
    Application: ELISA development
  15. Retinoic acid prevents mesenteric lymph node dendritic cells from inducing IL-13-producing inflammatory Th2 cells.
    Authors: Yokota-Nakatsuma A, Takeuchi H, Ohoka Y, Kato C, Song S, Hoshino T, Yagita H, Ohteki T, Iwata M
    Mucosal Immunol, 2014;7(4):786-801.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  16. Endothelial dysfunction exacerbates renal interstitial fibrosis through enhancing fibroblast Smad3 linker phosphorylation in the mouse obstructed kidney.
    Authors: Sun Y, Qu X, Li X, Nikolic-Paterson D, Li J
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(12):e84063.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: whole cells
    Application: cell culture
  17. FAK-related nonkinase is a multifunctional negative regulator of pulmonary fibrosis.
    Authors: Ding Q, Cai G, Hu M, Yang Y, Zheng A, Tang Q, Gladson C, Hayasaka H, Wu H, You Z, Southern B, Grove L, Rahaman S, Fang H, Olman M
    Am J Pathol, 2013;182(5):1572-84.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  18. Exposure to atmospheric particulate matter enhances Th17 polarization through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.
    Authors: van Voorhis, Michael, Knopp, Samantha, Julliard, Walker, Fechner, John H, Zhang, Xiaoji, Schauer, James J, Mezrich, Joshua D
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(12):e82545.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: whole cells
    Application: cell culture
  19. Regulation of innate CD8+ T-cell activation mediated by cytokines.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2012;109(25):9971-6.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
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