TGF-beta 1/1.2 Antibody Summary
Accession # P01137
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
TGF‑ beta 1 Inhibition of
IL‑4-dependent Cell Proliferation and Neutralization by TGF‑ beta 1/1.2 Antibody.
TGF‑ beta 1 Inhibition of
Preparation and Storage
- 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
- 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
- 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: TGF-beta 1/1.2
TGF-beta 1 (transforming growth factor beta 1) is one of three closely related mammalian members of the large TGF-beta superfamily that share a characteristic cystine knot structure. TGF-beta 1, -2 and -3 are highly pleiotropic cytokines that are proposed to act as cellular switches that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Each TGF-beta isoform has some non-redundant functions; for TGF-beta 1, mice with targeted deletion show defects in hematopoiesis and endothelial differentiation, and die of overwhelming inflammation. Human TGF-beta 1 cDNA encodes a 390 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 29 aa signal peptide and a 361 aa proprotein. A furin-like convertase processes the proprotein to generate an N-terminal 249 aa latency-associated peptide (LAP) and a C-terminal 112 aa mature TGF- beta 1. Disulfide-linked homodimers of LAP and TGF-beta 1 remain non-covalently associated after secretion, forming the small latent TGF-beta 1 complex. Covalent linkage of LAP to one of three latent TGF-beta binding proteins (LTBPs) creates a large latent complex that may interact with the extracellular matrix. TGF-beta is activated from latency by pathways that include actions of the protease plasmin, matrix metalloproteases, thrombospondin 1 and a subset of integrins. Mature human TGF-beta 1 shares 100% aa identity with pig, dog and cow TGF-beta 1, and 99% aa identity with mouse, rat and horse TGF-beta 1. It demonstrates cross-species activity. TGF-beta 1 signaling begins with high-affinity binding to a type II ser/thr kinase receptor termed TGF-beta RII. This receptor then phosphorylates and activates a second ser/thr kinase receptor, TGF-beta RI (also called activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) -5), or alternatively, ALK‑1. This complex phosphorylates and activates Smad proteins that regulate transcription. Contributions of the accessory receptors betaglycan (also known as TGF-beta RIII) and endoglin, or use of Smad-independent signaling pathways, allow for disparate actions observed in response to TGF-beta in different contexts.
Citations for TGF-beta 1/1.2 Antibody
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Citations: Showing 1 - 3
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Cancer associated fibroblasts regulate keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion via TGF-ï¿½-dependent pathways in genotype-specific oral cancer
Authors: S S Prime
Sample Types: Conditioned Media
Cord blood mesenchymal stem cells suppress DC-T Cell proliferation via prostaglandin B2.
Authors: van den Berk L, Jansen B, Snowden S, Siebers-Vermeulen K, Gilissen C, Kogler G, Figdor C, Wheelock C, Torensma R
Stem Cells Dev, 2014;23(14):1582-93.
Sample Types: Whole Cells
Isoform specificity of commercially-available anti-TGF-beta antibodies.
Authors: Mozes MM, Hodics T, Kopp JB
J. Immunol. Methods, 1999;225(1):87-93.
Sample Types: Recombinant Protein
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