Chemical Name: DL-2-Amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid
Biological ActivityDL-AP5 is a racemic mixture of the D- and L-isomers of AP5, a selective NMDA receptor antagonist that competes with glutamate binding and is commonly used to inhibit NMDA-dependent synaptic plasticity. D-AP5 (Cat. No. 0106) is the more active isomer and displays approximately 52-fold higher potency than the L-isomer, L-AP5 (Cat. No. 0107). In vitro D-AP5 reduces NMDA-induced depolarization of cortical neurons, with no effect on the response to L-Quisqualic acid (Cat. No. 0188) or Kainic acid (Cat. No. 0222). Following spinal injection of D-AP5, NMDA-response is rapidly reduced, with no effect seen on spontaneously active neurons.
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The effect of a series of ω-phosphonic-α-carboxylic amino acids on electrically evoked and amino acid induced responses in isolated spinal cord preparations.
Evans et al.
Actions of D and L forms of 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate and 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate in the cat spinal cord.
Davies and Watkins
Brain Res., 1982;235:378
Citations for DL-AP5
The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for DL-AP5 include:
90 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
Multi-target action of β-alanine protects cerebellar tissue from ischemic damage.
Authors: Kopach Et al.
Cell Death Dis 2022;13:747
TMEM16B regulates anxiety-related behavior and GABAergic neuronal signaling in the central lateral amygdala.
Authors: Li Et al.
Lmx1b is required at multiple stages to build expansive serotonergic axon architectures.
Authors: Donovan Et al.
Differences in glutamate uptake between cortical regions impact neuronal NMDA receptor activation.
Authors: Romanos Et al.
Commun Biol 2019;2:127
Endocannabinoid Signaling Mediates Local Dendritic Coordination between Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses.
Authors: Hu Et al.
Cell Rep 2019;27:666
Somatostatin Interneurons Promote Neuronal Synchrony in the Neonatal Hippocampus.
Authors: Flossmann Et al.
Cell Rep 2019;26:3173
Differential Regulation of Syngap1 Translation by FMRP Modulates eEF2 Mediated Response on NMDAR Activity.
Authors: Paul Et al.
Front Mol Neurosci 2019;12:97
Prenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) exposure induces working memory and social recognition deficits by disrupting inhibitory synaptic networks in male mice.
Authors: Yu Et al.
Mol Brain 2019;12:29
Design and validation of a foldable and photovoltaic wide-field epiretinal prosthesis.
Authors: Ferlauto Et al.
Nat Commun 2018;9:992
Pathway-specific alterations of cortico-amygdala transmission in an arthritis pain model.
Authors: Kiritoshi and Neugebauer
ACS Chem Neurosci 2018;9:2252
Cerebrospinal Fluid-Contacting Neurons Sense pH Changes and Motion in the Hypothalamus.
Authors: Jalalvand Et al.
J Neurosci 2018;38:7713
AKAP150 Palmitoylation Regulates Synaptic Incorporation of Ca2+-Permeable AMPA Receptors to Control LTP.
Authors: Purkey Et al.
Cell Rep 2018;25:974
Excitotoxic inactivation of constitutive oxidative stress detoxification pathway in neurons can be rescued by PKD1.
Authors: Pose-Utrilla Et al.
Nat Commun 2017;8:2275
Transcriptional Architecture of Synaptic Communication Delineates GABAergic Neuron Identity.
Authors: Paul Et al.
Astrocytes modulate thalamic sensory processing via mGlu2 receptor activation.
Authors: Copeland Et al.
Loss of MeCP2 in cholinergic neurons causes part of RTT-like phenotypes via α7 receptor in hippocampus.
Authors: Zhang Et al.
Cell Res 2016;26:728
Electrophysiological Assessment of Serotonin and GABA Neuron Function in the Dorsal Raphe during the Third Trimester Equivalent Developmental Period in Mice(1,2,3).
Authors: Morton Et al.
Rapid dispersion of SynGAP from synaptic spines triggers AMPA receptor insertion and spine enlargement during LTP.
Authors: Araki Et al.
Development of a neuroprotective peptide that preserves survival pathways by preventing Kidins220/ARMS calpain processing induced by excitotoxicity.
Authors: Gamir-Morralla Et al.
Cell Death Dis 2015;6:e1939
IL-1 interacts with ethanol effects on GABAergic transmission in the mouse central amygdala.
Authors: Bajo Et al.
Front Pharmacol 2015;6:49
GluN2B-Containing NMDA Receptors Regulate AMPA Receptor Traffic through Anchoring of the Synaptic Proteasome.
Authors: Ferreira Et al.
J Neurosci 2015;35:8462
PAR1-activated astrocytes in the nucleus of the solitary tract stimulate adjacent neurons via NMDA receptors.
Authors: Vance Et al.
J Neurosci 2015;35:776
Cortical Synaptic Inhibition Declines during Auditory Learning.
Authors: Sarro Et al.
J Neurosci 2015;35:6318
Muscarinic receptors modulate dendrodendritic inhibitory synapses to sculpt glomerular output.
Authors: Liu Et al.
J Neurosci 2015;35:5680
IGF-1 Signaling Plays an Important Role in the Formation of Three-Dimensional Laminated Neural Retina and Other Ocular Structures From Human Embryonic Stem Cells.
Authors: Mellough Et al.
Stem Cells 2015;33:2416
In vivo activation of the SK channel in the spinal cord reduces the NMDA receptor antagonist dose needed to produce antinociception in an inflammatory pain model.
Authors: Hipólito Et al.
Development and function of human cerebral cortex neural networks from pluripotent stem cells in vitro.
Authors: Kirwan Et al.
Rosiglitazone Suppresses In Vitro Seizures in Hippocampal Slice by Inhibiting Presynaptic Glutamate Release in a Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.
Authors: Wong Et al.
PLoS One 2015;10:e0144806
Both neurons and astrocytes exhibited tetrodotoxin-resistant metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent spontaneous slow Ca2+ oscillations in striatum.
Authors: Tamura Et al.
PLoS One 2014;9:e85351
The Ca2+ sensor protein swiprosin-1/EFhd2 is present in neurites and involved in kinesin-mediated transport in neurons.
Authors: Purohit Et al.
PLoS One 2014;9:e103976
Dynamic properties of the alkaline vesicle population at hippocampal synapses.
Authors: Röther Et al.
PLoS One 2014;9:e102723
LTD expression is independent of glutamate receptor subtype.
Authors: Granger and Nicoll
Front Synaptic Neurosci 2014;6:15
Synapse elimination and learning rules co-regulated by MHC class I H2-Db.
Authors: Lee Et al.
Repeated binge-like ethanol drinking alters ethanol drinking patterns and depresses striatal GABAergic transmission.
Authors: Wilcox Et al.
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ decreases glutamate transmission and blocks ethanol-induced effects in the central amygdala of naive and ethanol-dependent rats.
Authors: Kallupi Et al.
Phasic, nonsynaptic GABA-A receptor-mediated inhibition entrains thalamocortical oscillations.
Authors: Rovó Et al.
J Neurosci 2014;34:7137
A novel mechanism for nicotinic potentiation of glutamatergic synapses.
Authors: Halff Et al.
J Neurosci 2014;34:2051
Moderate Alcohol Exposure during the Rat Equivalent to the Third Trimester of Human Pregnancy Alters Regulation of GABAA Receptor-Mediated Synaptic Transmission by DA in the Basolateral Amygdala.
Authors: Diaz Et al.
Front Pediatr 2014;2:46
GPR35 activation reduces Ca2+ transients and contributes to the kynurenic acid-dependent reduction of synaptic activity at CA3-CA1 synapses.
Authors: Berlinguer-Palmini Et al.
PLoS One 2013;8:e82180
Low voltage activation of KCa1.1 current by Cav3-KCa1.1 complexes.
Authors: Rehak Et al.
PLoS One 2013;8:e61844
Autism-related deficits via dysregulated eIF4E-dependent translational control.
Authors: Gkogkas Et al.
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase and glycogen synthase kinase 3β regulate gephyrin postsynaptic aggregation and GABAergic synaptic function in a calpain-dependent mechanism.
Authors: Tyagarajan Et al.
J Biol Chem 2013;288:9634
Increased neuronal activity fragments the Golgi complex.
Authors: Thayer Et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013;110:1482
Genetic inhibition of CaMKII in dorsal striatal medium spiny neurons reduces functional excitatory synapses and enhances intrinsic excitability.
Authors: Klug Et al.
PLoS One 2012;7:e45323
Local hypocretin-1 modulates terminal DA concentration in the nucleus accumbens shell.
Authors: Patyal Et al.
Front Behav Neurosci 2012;6:82
Chronic ethanol up-regulates the synaptic expression of the nuclear translational regulatory protein AIDA-1 in primary hippocampal neurons.
Authors: Mulholland Et al.
Disruption of Eaat2b, a glutamate transporter, results in abnormal motor behaviors in developing zebrafish.
Authors: McKeown Et al.
Dev Biol 2012;362:162
Mixed electrical-chemical transmission between hippocampal mossy fibers and pyramidal cells.
Authors: Vivar Et al.
Eur J Neurosci 2012;35:76
Activity-dependent regulation of inhibition via GAD67.
Authors: Lau and Murthy
J Neurosci 2012;32:8521
LTP induction translocates cortactin at distant synapses in wild-type but not Fmr1 knock-out mice.
Authors: Seese Et al.
J Neurosci 2012;32:7403
Endocannabinoid-mediated long-term depression of afferent excitatory synapses in hippocampal pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons.
Authors: Peterfi Et al.
J Neurosci 2012;32:14448
Spinal cord NMDA receptor-mediated activation of mammalian target of rapamycin is required for the development and maintenance of bone cancer-induced pain hypersensitivities in rats.
Authors: Shih Et al.
J Pain 2012;13:338
Focal adhesion kinase regulates actin nucleation and neuronal filopodia formation during axonal growth.
Authors: Chacón Et al.
Actin-dependent rapid recruitment of reluctant synaptic vesicles into a fast-releasing vesicle pool.
Authors: Lee Et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012;109:E765
Specificity and actions of an arylaspartate inhibitor of glutamate transport at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 pyramidal cell synapse.
Authors: Sun Et al.
PLoS One 2011;6:e23765
GABAergic signalling in a neurogenic niche of the turtle spinal cord.
Authors: Reali Et al.
J Physiol 2011;589:5633
Neurogranin phosphorylation fine-tunes long-term potentiation.
Authors: Zhong Et al.
Eur J Neurosci 2011;33:244
Functional NMDA receptors at axonal growth cones of young hippocampal neurons.
Authors: Wang Et al.
J Neurosci 2011;31:9289
Homeostatic synaptic plasticity through changes in presynaptic calcium influx.
Authors: Zhao Et al.
J Neurosci 2011;31:7492
Neto1 is an auxiliary subunit of native synaptic kainate receptors.
Authors: Tang Et al.
J Neurosci 2011;31:10009
SynGAP moves out of the core of the postsynaptic density upon depolarization.
Authors: Yang Et al.
M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor expression confers differential cholinergic modulation to neurochemically distinct hippocampal basket cell subtypes.
Authors: Rio Et al.
J Neurosci 2010;30:6011
SAP102 is a highly mobile MAGUK in spines.
Authors: Zheng Et al.
J Neurosci 2010;30:4757
Control of CA3 output by feedforward inhibition despite developmental changes in the excitation-inhibition balance.
Authors: Torborg Et al.
J Neurosci 2010;30:15628
Reduction in synaptic GABA release contributes to target-selective elevation of PVN neuronal activity in rats with myocardial infarction.
Authors: Han Et al.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2010;299:R129
Glutamate co-release at GABA/glycinergic synapses is crucial for the refinement of an inhibitory map.
Authors: Noh Et al.
Nat Neurosci 2010;13:232
Regulation of stargazin synaptic trafficking by C-terminal PDZ ligand phosphorylation in bidirectional synaptic plasticity.
Authors: Stein and Chetkovich
J Neurochem 2010;113:42
A mouse model of the human Fragile X syndrome I304N mutation.
Authors: Zang Et al.
PLoS Genet 2009;5:e1000758
Compensatory enhancement of intrinsic spiking upon NKCC1 disruption in neonatal hippocampus.
Authors: Sipilä Et al.
J Neurosci 2009;29:6982
Co-transmission of DA and GABA in periglomerular cells.
Authors: Maher and Westbrook
J Neurophysiol 2008;99:1559
Electrophysiology and pharmacology of striatal neuronal dysfunction induced by mitochondrial complex I inhibition.
Authors: Costa Et al.
J Neurosci 2008;28:8040
NMDA receptor blockade with Mem. attenuates white matter injury in a rat model of periventricular leukomalacia.
Authors: Manning Et al.
J Neurosci 2008;28:6670
Competition between calcium-activated K+ channels determines cholinergic action on firing properties of basolateral amygdala projection neurons.
Authors: Power and Sah
J Neurosci 2008;28:3209
White matter vulnerability to ischemic injury increases with age because of enhanced excitotoxicity.
Authors: Baltan Et al.
J Neurosci 2008;28:1479
Sequential changes in AMPA receptor targeting in the developing neocortical excitatory circuit.
Authors: Brill and Huguenard
J Neurosci 2008;28:13918
DA enhances fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the extended amygdala by a CRF-R1-dependent process.
Authors: Kash Et al.
J Neurosci 2008;28:13856
Neuregulin-1 enhances depolarization-induced GABA release.
Authors: Woo Et al.
Long-term modifications in the strength of excitatory associative inputs in the piriform cortex.
Authors: Young and Sun
Chem Senses 2007;32:783
Metabotropic receptor-dependent long-term depression persists in the absence of protein synthesis in the mouse model of fragile X syndrome.
Authors: Nosyreva and Huber
J Neurophysiol 2006;95:3291
Regulation of thalamocortical patterning and synaptic maturation by NeuroD2.
Authors: Ince-Dunn Et al.
Insufficient sleep reversibly alters bidirectional synaptic plasticity and NMDA receptor function.
Authors: Kopp Et al.
J Neurosci 2006;26:12456
GAT-3 transporters regulate inhibition in the neocortex.
J Neurophysiol 2005;94:4533
Glutamatergic regulation of the p70S6 kinase in primary mouse neurons.
Authors: Lenz and Avruch
J Biol Chem 2005;280:38121
Programmed and induced phenotype of the hippocampal granule cells.
Authors: Gómez-Lira Et al.
J Neurosci 2005;25:6939
Synchronized network activity in developing rat hippocampus involves regional hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel function.
Authors: Bender Et al.
Eur J Neurosci 2005;22:2669
Metabotropic regulation of intrinsic excitability by synaptic activation of kainate receptors.
Authors: Melyan Et al.
J Neurosci 2004;24:4530
Disruption of endocannabinoid release and striatal long-term depression by postsynaptic blockade of endocannabinoid membrane transport.
Authors: Ronesi Et al.
J Neurosci 2004;24:1673
A role for ERK MAP kinase in physiologic temporal integration in hippocampal area CA1.
Authors: Selcher Et al.
Learn Mem 2003;10:26
A GDP/GTP exchange protein for the Rab3 small G protein family up-regulates a postdocking step of synaptic exocytosis in central synapses.
Authors: Yamaguchi Et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002;99:14536
Kainate receptor-mediated synaptic currents in cerebellar Golgi cells are not shaped by diffusion of glutamate.
Authors: Bureau Et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2000;97:6838
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