Human TGF-beta 1 Protein

(29 citations)
(3 Reviews)
  
  • Purity
    >97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
  • Activity
    Measured by its ability to inhibit the IL-4-dependent proliferation of HT‑2 mouse T cells. Tsang, M. et al. (1995) Cytokine 7:389. The ED50 for this effect is 0.04-0.2 ng/mL.
  • Source
    Human platelet-derived The human platelets used for the isolation of this product were certified by the supplier to be HIV-1 and HBsAg negative at the time of shipment. Human blood products should always be treated in accordance with universal handling precautions.
  • Structure / Form
    Disulfide-linked homodimer
  • SDS-PAGE
    12 kDa, reducing conditions
Carrier Free
What does CF mean?
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
What formulation is right for me?
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
100-B
 
100-B/CF
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA with BSA as a carrier protein.
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 10 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Reconstitution For complete recovery, reconstitute at 10 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl containing 1% human or bovine serum albumin. In the absence of a carrier protein, the percent recovery may vary.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Data Images
Human TGF-beta 1 (Catalog # 100-B) inhibits Recombinant Mouse IL‑4 (Catalog #
404-ML) induced cell proliferation in the
HT-2 mouse T cell line. The ED50 for this effect is 0.04-0.2 ng/mL.
1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing single bands at 12 kDa and 24 kDa, respectively.
Background: TGF-beta 1

TGF-beta 1 (transforming growth factor beta 1) is one of three closely related mammalian members of the large TGF-beta  superfamily that share a characteristic cysteine knot structure (1-7). TGF-beta 1, -2 and -3 are highly pleiotropic cytokines that are proposed to act as cellular switches that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (1-4). Each TGF-beta isoform has some non-redundant functions; for TGF-beta 1, mice with targeted deletion show defects in hematopoiesis and endothelial differentiation, and die of overwhelming inflammation (2). Human TGF-beta 1 cDNA encodes a 390 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 29 aa signal peptide and a 361 aa proprotein (8). A furin-like convertase processes the proprotein to generate an N-terminal 249 aa latency-associated peptide (LAP) and a C-terminal 112 aa mature TGF-  beta 1 (8, 9). Disulfide-linked homodimers of LAP and TGF-beta 1 remain non-covalently associated after secretion, forming the small latent TGF-beta 1 complex (8-10). Covalent linkage of LAP to one of three latent TGF-beta binding proteins (LTBPs) creates a large latent complex that may interact with the extracellular matrix (9, 10). TGF-beta is activated from latency by pathways that include actions of the protease plasmin, matrix metalloproteases, thrombospondin 1 and a subset of integrins (10). Mature human TGF-beta 1 shares 100% aa identity with pig, dog and cow TGF-beta 1, and 99% aa identity with mouse, rat and horse TGF-beta 1. It demonstrates cross-species activity (1). TGF-beta 1 signaling begins with high-affinity binding to a type II ser/thr kinase receptor termed TGF-beta  RII. This receptor then phosphorylates and activates a second ser/thr kinase receptor, TGF-beta  RI (also called activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) -5), or alternatively,
ALK‑1.This complex phosphorylates and activates Smad proteins that regulate transcription (3, 11, 12). Contributions of the accessory receptors betaglycan (also known as TGF-beta  RIII) and endoglin, or use of Smad-independent signaling pathways, allow for disparate actions observed in response to TGF-beta in different contexts (11).

  • References:
    1. Derynck, R. and K. Miyazono (2008) “TGF-beta and the TGF-beta Family” in The TGF-beta Family, Derynck, R. and K. Miyazono eds., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, p. 29.
    2. Dunker, N. & K. Krieglstein, 2000, Eur. J. Biochem. 267:6982.
    3. Wahl, S.M. (2006) Immunol. Rev. 213:213.
    4. Chang, H. et al. (2002) Endocr. Rev. 23:787.
    5. Lin, J.S. et al. (2006) Reproduction 132:179.
    6. Hinck, A.P. et al. (1996) Biochemistry 35:8517.
    7. Mittl, P.R.E. et al. (1996) Protein Sci. 5:1261.
    8. Derynck, R. et al. (1985) Nature 316:701.
    9. Miyazono, K. et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263:6407.
    10. Oklu, R. and R. Hesketh (2000) Biochem. J. 352:601.
    11. de Caestecker, M. et al. (2004) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 15:1.
    12. Zuniga, J.E. et al. (2005) J. Mol. Biol. 354:1052.
  • Long Name:
    Transforming Growth Factor beta 1
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    7040 (Human); 21803 (Mouse); 59086 (Rat); 397078 (Porcine); 100033900 (Equine)
  • Alternate Names:
    CEDLAP; DPD1; latency-associated peptide; TGFB; TGFB1; TGF-beta 1 protein; TGFbeta 1; TGF-beta 1; TGFbeta; TGF-beta-1; transforming growth factor beta-1; transforming growth factor, beta 1
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

29 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate Fibroblast Activation and Kidney Fibrosis Involving MTORC2 Signaling Suppression
    Authors: Z Zeng, H Yang, Y Wang, J Ren, Y Dai, C Dai
    Sci Rep, 2017;7(0):46146.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  2. Quercetin Inhibits Fibroblast Activation and Kidney Fibrosis Involving the Suppression of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin and ?-catenin Signaling
    Authors: J Ren, J Li, X Liu, Y Feng, Y Gui, J Yang, W He, C Dai
    Sci Rep, 2016;6(0):23968.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  3. Recruitment of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) to the Fibroblast Cell Surface by Lysyl Hydroxylase 3 (LH3) Triggers Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-beta) Activation and Fibroblast Differentiation.
    Authors: Dayer C, Stamenkovic I
    J Biol Chem, 2015;290(22):13763-78.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  4. Rictor/mTORC2 signaling mediates TGFbeta1-induced fibroblast activation and kidney fibrosis.
    Authors: Li J, Ren J, Liu X, Jiang L, He W, Yuan W, Yang J, Dai C
    Kidney Int, 2015;88(3):515-27.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  5. Autocrine CSF1R signaling mediates switching between invasion and proliferation downstream of TGFbeta in claudin-low breast tumor cells.
    Authors: Patsialou A, Wang Y, Pignatelli J, Chen X, Entenberg D, Oktay M, Condeelis J
    Oncogene, 2015;34(21):2721-31.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  6. Induction of high temperature requirement A1, a serine protease, by TGF-beta1 in articular chondrocytes of mouse models of OA.
    Authors: Xu L, Golshirazian I, Asbury B, Li Y
    , 2014;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  7. Autophagy fosters myofibroblast differentiation through MTORC2 activation and downstream upregulation of CTGF.
    Authors: Bernard M, Dieude M, Yang B, Hamelin K, Underwood K, Hebert M
    Autophagy, 2014;10(12):2193-207.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  8. Opposing roles for Smad2 and Smad3 in peritoneal fibrosis in vivo and in vitro.
    Authors: Duan W, Yu X, Huang X, Yu J, Lan H
    Am J Pathol, 2014;184(8):2275-84.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  9. Rheb/mTORC1 signaling promotes kidney fibroblast activation and fibrosis.
    Authors: Jiang L, Xu L, Mao J, Li J, Fang L, Zhou Y, Liu W, He W, Zhao A, Yang J, Dai C
    J Am Soc Nephrol, 2013;24(7):1114-26.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  10. TGF-beta signaling to T cells inhibits autoimmunity during lymphopenia-driven proliferation.
    Authors: Zhang N, Bevan MJ
    Nat. Immunol., 2012;13(7):667-73.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  11. Severe dermatitis with loss of epidermal Langerhans cells in human and mouse zinc deficiency.
    Authors: Kawamura T, Ogawa Y, Nakamura Y
    J. Clin. Invest., 2012;122(2):722-32.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  12. Chemotherapy-triggered cathepsin B release in myeloid-derived suppressor cells activates the Nlrp3 inflammasome and promotes tumor growth.
    Authors: Bruchard M, Mignot G, Derangere V, Chalmin F, Chevriaux A, Vegran F, Boireau W, Simon B, Ryffel B, Connat J, Kanellopoulos J, Martin F, Rebe C, Apetoh L, Ghiringhelli F
    Nat Med, 2012;19(1):57-64.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  13. Transforming growth factor beta induces sensory neuronal hyperexcitability, and contributes to pancreatic pain and hyperalgesia in rats with chronic pancreatitis.
    Authors: Zhu Y, Colak T, Shenoy M, Liu L, Mehta K, Pai R, Zou B, Xie X, Pasricha P
    Mol Pain, 2012;8(0):65.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: Bioassay
  14. A role for IL-27p28 as an antagonist of gp130-mediated signaling.
    Authors: Stumhofer JS, Tait ED, Quinn WJ, Hosken N, Spudy B, Goenka R, Fielding CA, O'Hara AC, Chen Y, Jones ML, Saris CJ, Rose-John S, Cua DJ, Jones SA, Elloso MM, Grotzinger J, Cancro MP, Levin SD, Hunter CA
    Nat. Immunol., 2010;11(12):1119-26.
  15. VEGFR2 is selectively expressed by FOXP3high CD4+ Treg.
    Authors: Suzuki H, Onishi H, Wada J, Yamasaki A, Tanaka H, Nakano K, Morisaki T, Katano M
    Eur. J. Immunol., 2010;40(1):197-203.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  16. B and T lymphocyte attenuator suppresses IL-21 production from follicular Th cells and subsequent humoral immune responses.
    Authors: Kashiwakuma D, Suto A, Hiramatsu Y
    J. Immunol., 2010;185(5):2730-6.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  17. Gram-positive bacteria enhance HIV-1 susceptibility in Langerhans cells, but not in dendritic cells, via Toll-like receptor activation.
    Authors: Ogawa Y, Kawamura T, Kimura T, Ito M, Blauvelt A, Shimada S
    Blood, 2009;113(21):5157-66.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  18. Pax3 activation promotes the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells toward the myogenic lineage.
    Authors: Gang EJ, Bosnakovski D, Simsek T, To K, Perlingeiro RC
    Exp. Cell Res., 2008;314(8):1721-33.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  19. Increase in transforming growth factor-beta in the brain during infection is related to fever, not depression of spontaneous motor activity.
    Authors: Matsumura S, Shibakusa T, Fujikawa T, Yamada H, Inoue K, Fushiki T
    Neuroscience, 2007;144(3):1133-40.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  20. Activin A is an anticatabolic autocrine cytokine in articular cartilage whose production is controlled by fibroblast growth factor 2 and NF-kappaB.
    Authors: Alexander S, Watt F, Sawaji Y, Hermansson M, Saklatvala J
    Arthritis Rheum., 2007;56(11):3715-25.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  21. Identification of BMP9 and BMP10 as functional activators of the orphan activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) in endothelial cells.
    Authors: David L, Mallet C, Mazerbourg S, Feige JJ, Bailly S
    Blood, 2007;109(5):1953-61.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  22. Characterization of human lung tumor-associated fibroblasts and their ability to modulate the activation of tumor-associated T cells.
    Authors: Nazareth MR, Broderick L, Simpson-Abelson MR, Kelleher RJ, Yokota SJ, Bankert RB
    J. Immunol., 2007;178(9):5552-62.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type:
    Application: Bioassay
  23. Canonical Wnt signaling is required for development of embryonic stem cell-derived mesoderm.
    Authors: Lindsley RC, Gill JG, Kyba M, Murphy TL, Murphy KM
    Development, 2006;133(19):3787-96.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  24. Interferon-gamma inhibits transforming growth factor-beta production in human airway epithelial cells by targeting Smads.
    Authors: Wen FQ, Liu X, Kobayashi T, Abe S, Fang Q, Kohyama T, Ertl R, Terasaki Y, Manouilova L, Rennard SI
    Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol., 2004;30(6):816-22.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  25. trans fatty acids and systemic inflammation in heart failure.
    Authors: Mozaffarian D, Rimm EB, King IB, Lawler RL, McDonald GB, Levy WC
    Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2004;80(6):1521-5.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Type: N/A
    Application: ELISA Standard
  26. Dual regulation of proliferation and growth arrest in prostatic stromal cells by transforming growth factor-beta1.
    Authors: Zhou W, Park I, Pins M, Kozlowski JM, Jovanovic B, Zhang J, Lee C, Ilio K
    Endocrinology, 2003;144(10):4280-4.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  27. Transforming growth factor-beta -Smad signaling pathway cooperates with NF-kappa B to mediate nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced MUC2 mucin transcription.
    Authors: Jono H, Shuto T, Xu H, Kai H, Lim DJ, Gum JR, Kim YS, Yamaoka S, Feng XH, Li JD
    J. Biol. Chem., 2002;277(47):45547-57.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  28. Transforming growth factor beta(1) selectively inhibits the cyclic AMP-dependent proliferation of primary thyroid epithelial cells by preventing the association of cyclin D3-cdk4 with nuclear p27(kip1).
    Authors: Depoortere F, Pirson I, Bartek J, Dumont JE, Roger PP
    Mol. Biol. Cell, 2000;11(3):1061-76.
    Species: Canine
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  29. Macrophages that have ingested apoptotic cells in vitro inhibit proinflammatory cytokine production through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms involving TGF-beta, PGE2, and PAF.
    Authors: Fadok, V A, Bratton, D L, Konowal, A, Freed, P W, Westcott, J Y, Henson, P M
    J Clin Invest, 1998;101(4):890-8.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
Expand to show all 29 Citations
Average Rating: 5 (Based on 3 reviews)

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 In vitro bioactivity in cell culture Anonymous 11/03/2017
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ApplicationIn vitro bioactivity in cell culture
Reason for RatingExcellent response in cell tissue studies at the NM level concentration
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