Cell Proliferation Induced by GITR Ligand/TNFSF18 and Neutralization by Mouse GITR Ligand/TNFSF18 Antibody. In the presence of Mouse CD3 epsilon Monoclonal Antibody (0.5 µg/mL, Catalog # MAB484) and a cross-linking antibody, polyHistidine Monoclonal Antibody (10 µg/mL, Catalog # MAB050), Recombinant Mouse GITR Ligand/TNFSF18 (Catalog # 2177-GL) stimulates proliferation in mouse CD4+ T cells in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Under these conditions, proliferation elicited by Recombinant Mouse GITR Ligand/TNFSF18 (2 µg/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Rat Anti-Mouse GITR Ligand/|
TNFSF18 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB2177). The ND50 is typically 2-8 µg/mL.
Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor superfamily-related protein ligand (GITRL) is a member of the TNF superfamily (TNFSF) and has been designated TNFSF18. Mouse GITRL cDNA encodes a 173 amino acid (aa) residues type II membrane protein with a C-terminal extracellular domain of 131 aa, an N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of 23 aa and a transmembrane domain of 19 aa. It shares approximately 60% aa sequence identity with human GITRL (2). Mouse GITRL is expressed at high levels in macrophages, dendritic cells and B cells. The expression is transiently up-regulated by LPS stimulation. GITRL binds to the type I transmembrane protein GITR/TNFRSF18, which is a member of the TNF receptor superfamily that is predominantly expressed on CD25+ regulatory CD4+ T cells (Treg). GITR is also expressed on naïve CD4+ CD25- T cells, where its expression is up-regulated after antigen-driven activation (1, 2). Ligation of GITR has been found to induce nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B activation via TNF receptor-associated factor 2. GITRL provides co-stimulatory signals for activated CD4+ CD25- T cells to enhance cell proliferation and augment cytokine production. On CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells, GITRL also provides co-stimulatory signals to induce proliferation, setting Treg cells in an active/hyperproliferactive state that reverses the suppressive function of Treg cells. GITRL-GITR ligation provides important co-stimulatory signals that play important roles in modulating diverse T cell functions (1‑4).
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