Measured by its ability to neutralize GITR Ligand/TNFSF18-induced proliferation in mouse CD4+ T cells. The Neutralization Dose (ND50) is typically 2-8 µg/mL in the presence of 2 µg/mL Recombinant Mouse GITR Ligand/TNFSF18, 0.5 µg/mL Mouse CD3 epsilon Monoclonal Antibody, and 10 µg/mL of a cross-linking antibody, polyHistidine Monoclonal Antibody.
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application.
are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Cell Proliferation Induced by GITR Ligand/TNFSF18 and Neutralization by Mouse GITR Ligand/TNFSF18 Antibody.
In the presence of Mouse CD3 epsilon Monoclonal Antibody (0.5 µg/mL, Catalog # MAB484) and a cross-linking antibody, polyHistidine Monoclonal Antibody (10 µg/mL, Catalog # MAB050), Recombinant Mouse GITR Ligand/TNFSF18 (Catalog # 2177-GL) stimulates proliferation in mouse CD4+ T cells in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Under these conditions, proliferation elicited by Recombinant Mouse GITR Ligand/TNFSF18 (2 µg/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Rat Anti-Mouse GITR Ligand/ TNFSF18 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB2177). The ND50 is typically 2-8 µg/mL.
Preparation and Storage
Reconstitute at 0.5 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
Reconstitution Buffer Available
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: GITR Ligand/TNFSF18
Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor superfamily-related protein ligand (GITRL) is a member of the TNF superfamily (TNFSF) and has been designated TNFSF18. Mouse GITRL cDNA encodes a 173 amino acid (aa) residues type II membrane protein with a C-terminal extracellular domain of 131 aa, an N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of 23 aa and a transmembrane domain of 19 aa. It shares approximately 60% aa sequence identity with human GITRL (2). Mouse GITRL is expressed at high levels in macrophages, dendritic cells and B cells. The expression is transiently up-regulated by LPS stimulation. GITRL binds to the type I transmembrane protein GITR/TNFRSF18, which is a member of the TNF receptor superfamily that is predominantly expressed on CD25+ regulatory CD4+ T cells (Treg). GITR is also expressed on naïve CD4+ CD25- T cells, where its expression is up-regulated after antigen-driven activation (1, 2). Ligation of GITR has been found to induce nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B activation via TNF receptor-associated factor 2. GITRL provides co-stimulatory signals for activated CD4+ CD25- T cells to enhance cell proliferation and augment cytokine production. On CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells, GITRL also provides co-stimulatory signals to induce proliferation, setting Treg cells in an active/hyperproliferactive state that reverses the suppressive function of Treg cells. GITRL-GITR ligation provides important co-stimulatory signals that play important roles in modulating diverse T cell functions (1‑4).
Tone, M. et al. (2003) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:15059.
Ji, H. et al. (2004) J. Immunology 172:5823.
Kanamaru, F. et al. (2004) J. Immunology 172:7306.
Ronchetti, S. et al. (2004) Eur. J. Immunology 34:613.
Glucocorticoid Induced TNF Receptor Family Related Gene Ligand
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products.
The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed,
but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Submit a review and receive a $25US/€18/£15/$25CAN amazon gift card if you include an image - $10US/€7/£6/$10CAN Amazon card for reviews without an image. Limited to verified customers in USA, Canada and Europe.