|IL‑33 in bEnd.3 Mouse Cell Line. IL‑33 was detected in immersion fixed bEnd.3 mouse endothelioma cell line using Sheep Anti-Mouse IL‑33 Propeptide Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF5010) at 10 µg/mL for 3 hours at room temperature. Cells were stained using the NorthernLights™ 557-conjugated Anti-Sheep IgG Secondary Antibody (red, upper panel; Catalog # NL010) and counterstained with DAPI (blue, lower panel). View our protocol for Fluorescent ICC Staining of Cells on Coverslips.|
|Detection of Mouse IL‑33 Propeptide by Western Blot. Western blot shows lysates of EL‑4 mouse lymphoblast cell line and mouse lactating mammary tissue. PVDF membrane was probed with 1 µg/mL of Sheep Anti-Mouse IL‑33 Propeptide Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF5010) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Sheep IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF016). A specific band was detected for IL‑33 Propeptide at approximately 30 kDa (as indicated). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 8.|
IL-33, also known as NF-HEV and DVS 27, is a 30 kDa proinflammatory protein that may also regulate gene transcription (1‑3). DVS 27 was identifed as a gene that is up‑regulated in vasospastic cerebral arteries (1). NF-HEV was described as a nuclear factor that is preferentially expressed in the endothelial cells of high endothelial venules relative to endothelial cells from other tissues (2). IL-33 was identified based on sequence and structural homology with IL-1 family cytokines (3). DVS 27, NF-HEV, and IL-33 share 100% amino acid sequence identity. IL-33 is constitutively expressed in smooth muscle and airway epithelia. It is up‑regulated in arterial smooth muscle, dermal fibroblasts, and keratinocytes following IL-1 alpha or IL-1 beta stimulation (1, 3). Similar to IL-1, IL-33 can be cleaved in vitro by caspase-1, generating an N-terminal fragment that is slightly shorter than the C-terminal fragment (3, 4). The N-terminal portion of full length IL-33 contains a predicted bipartite nuclear localization sequence and a homeodomain-like helix-turn-helix DNA binding domain. By immunofluorescence, full length IL-33 localizes to the nucleus in HUVECs and transfectants (2). The C-terminal fragment, corresponding to mature IL-33, binds and triggers signaling through mast cell IL-1 R4/ST2L, a longtime orphan receptor involved in the augmentation of Th2 cell responses (3, 5‑7). A ternary signaling complex is formed by the subsequent association of IL-33 and ST2L with IL-1R AcP (8). Stimulation of Th2 polarized lymphocytes with mature IL-33 in vitro induces IL-5 and IL-13 secretion (3). In vivo administration of mature IL-33 promotes increased production of IL-5, IL-13, IgE, and IgA, as well as splenomegaly and inflammatory infiltration of mucosal tissues (3). Full length and mature mouse IL-33 share approximately 55% and 90% aa sequence identity with human and rat IL-33, respectively. Mouse IL-33 shares less than 25% aa sequence identity with other IL-1 family proteins.