Mouse TNF-alpha ELISpot Kit

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
XEL410
EL410
R&D Systems ELISpot and FluoroSpot Kits
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Citations (3)
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Mouse TNF-alpha ELISpot Kit Summary

Assay Type
Quantitative Sandwich ELISA
Format
96-well PVDF-backed microplate
Assay Length
3 hours 15 mins to 4 hours 30 mins*
Sample Type
Whole Cells
Specificity
Please see the product datasheet

* Provided that the recommended microplates, buffers, diluents, substrates and solutions are used, and the assay is run as summarized in the Assay Procedure provided.


PRODUCT SUMMARY
ELISpot kits are highly sensitive, microplate-based assays for the detection of cytokine secreting cells. This kit is designed for the detection and enumeration of mouse TNF-alpha. Complete ELISpot kits are ready-to-run and require no assay development or refinement.

This ELISpot assay employs a capture antibody specific for mouse TNF-alpha, pre-coated onto a PVDF-backed microplate. Appropriately stimulated cells are pipetted directly into the wells and the immobilized antibody in the immediate vicinity of the secreting cells binds secreted mouse TNF-alpha. Following wash steps and incubation with a biotinylated detection antibody, alkaline-phosphatase conjugated to streptavidin is added. Unbound enzyme is subsequently removed by washing and a substrate solution (BCIP/NBT) is added. A blue-black colored precipitate forms at the sites of cytokine localization and appears as spots, with each individual spot representing an individual mouse TNF-alpha secreting cell. The spots can be counted with an automated ELISpot reader system or manually using a stereomicroscope.


PRODUCT FEATURES

  • Detect and quantitate individual cells secreting mouse TNF-alpha
  • High sensitivity - ELISpot assays can measure responses with frequencies well below 1 in 100,000 cells
  • No in vitro expansion of cells required
  • High-throughput - ELISpot assays use only a small number of primary cells


KIT CONTENTS

  • Mouse TNF-alpha Microplate
  • Biotinylated Detection Antibody
  • Streptavidin conjugated to Alkaline Phosphatase
  • Dilution Buffers
  • Wash Buffer Concentrate
  • BCIP/NBT Chromogen
  • Mouse TNF-alpha Positive Control

OTHER REAGENTS REQUIRED

  • Pipettes and pipette tips
  • Deionized or distilled water
  • Squirt bottle, manifold dispenser, or automated microplate washer
  • 500 mL graduated cylinder
  • 37 °C CO2 incubator
  • Sterile culture media
  • Dissection microscope or an automated ELISpot reader

Complete Your Experiment

Product Datasheets

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Preparation and Storage

Shipping
The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage
Store the unopened product at 2 - 8 °C. Do not use past expiration date.

Background: TNF-alpha

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), also known as cachectin and TNFSF2, is the prototypic ligand of the TNF superfamily. It is a pleiotropic molecule that plays a central role in inflammation, apoptosis, and immune system development. TNF-α is produced by a wide variety of immune and epithelial cell types. Human TNF-α consists of a 35 amino acid (aa) cytoplasmic domain, a 21 aa transmembrane segment, and a 177 aa extracellular domain (ECD). Within the ECD, human TNF-α shares 97% aa sequence identity with rhesus and 71% - 92% with bovine, canine, cotton rat, equine, feline, mouse, porcine, and rat TNF-α. The 26 kDa type 2 transmembrane protein is assembled intracellularly to form a noncovalently linked homotrimer. Ligation of this complex induces reverse signaling that promotes lymphocyte costimulation but diminishes monocyte responsiveness.

Cleavage of membrane bound TNF-α by TACE/ADAM17 releases a 55 kDa soluble trimeric form of TNF-α. TNF-α trimers bind the ubiquitous TNF RI and the hematopoietic cell-restricted TNF RII, both of which are also expressed as homotrimers. TNF-α regulates lymphoid tissue development through control of apoptosis. It also promotes inflammatory responses by inducing the activation of vascular endothelial cells and macrophages. TNF-α is a key cytokine in the development of several inflammatory disorders. It contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes through its effects on insulin resistance and fatty acid metabolism.

Long Name:
Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha
Entrez Gene IDs:
7124 (Human); 21926 (Mouse); 24835 (Rat); 397086 (Porcine); 280943 (Bovine); 403922 (Canine); 102139631 (Cynomolgus Monkey); 100033834 (Equine); 493755 (Feline); 100009088 (Rabbit)
Alternate Names:
APC1 protein; Cachectin; Cachetin; DIF; TNF; TNF, monocyte-derived; TNFA; TNF-A; TNFalpha; TNF-alpha; TNF-alphacachectin; TNFATNF, macrophage-derived; TNFG1F; TNFSF1A; TNFSF2; TNFSF2TNF superfamily, member 2; tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily, member 2); tumor necrosis factor alpha; Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 2; tumor necrosis factor; tumor necrosis factor-alpha
⚠ WARNING: This product can expose you to chemicals including methanol, which is known to the State of California to cause reproductive toxicity with developmental effects. For more information, go to www.P65Warnings.ca.gov.

Citations for Mouse TNF-alpha ELISpot Kit

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

3 Citations: Showing 1 - 3
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  1. Broad and Effective Protection against Staphylococcus aureus Is Elicited by a Multivalent Vaccine Formulated with Novel Antigens
    Authors: J Deng, X Wang, BZ Zhang, P Gao, Q Lin, RY Kao, K Gustafsson, KY Yuen, JD Huang
    mSphere, 2019;4(5):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
  2. The Shc family protein adaptor, Rai, acts as a negative regulator of Th17 and Th1 cell development.
    Authors: Savino, Maria Te, Ulivieri, Cristina, Emmi, Giacomo, Prisco, Domenico, De Falco, Giulia, Ortensi, Barbara, Beccastrini, Enrico, Emmi, Lorenzo, Pelicci, Giuliana, D'Elios, Mario M, Baldari, Cosima T
    J Leukoc Biol, 2013;93(4):549-59.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
  3. Dietary fish oil increases the number of splenic macrophages secreting TNF-alpha and IL-10 but decreases the secretion of these cytokines by splenic T cells from mice.
    Authors: Petursdottir DH, Hardardottir I
    J. Nutr., 2007;137(3):665-70.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells

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